As a former enemy, did the Qing rulers really praise Yuan Chonghuan?

It was a famous military general in the late Ming Dynasty. In the late Ming Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty faced an unfavorable situation of internal and external problems. Yuan Chonghuan was commanded in danger, guarding the eastern part of Liaoning, and succeeding in successive battles with the Hou Jin army. In order to defeat Yuan Chonghuan and use countermeasures, the captive Yang eunuch deliberately knew that Yuan Chonghuan and Huang Taiji had entered into a secret agreement to bring the Jin army into the border. Eunuch Yang returned to Beijing to inform the emperor, and with the frame of eunuchs Wei Zhongxian and other eunuchs, Chongzhen emperor did the trick. Three years of Chongzhen (1630), Yuan Chonghuan was executed by Chongzhen Emperor in Beijing. After Yuan Chonghuan s death, Beijing was under siege , and the Ming Dynasty was at stake.

After Yuan Chonghuan s death, the Ming Dynasty s evaluation of the Yuan family was mixed. According to rumors, some writers who did not know the truth were resentful at Yuan Chonghuan s behavior, and rebuked him for betraying his country. The old subordinates of Yuan Chonghuan and the elders in his hometown of Dongguan, Guangdong, believed that Yuan was framed to death, and he always wanted to bring the case to Yuan.

After the establishment of the Qing Dynasty, the rulers of the Qing Dynasty did have some praise for Yuan Chonghuan. Biography of Yuan Chonghuan in History of the Ming Dynasty rehabilitated Yuan Chonghuan s death due to countermeasures. During the Qianlong reign , Emperor Qianlong lamented after reading History of Ming Dynasty: Although Yuan Chonghuan was an enemy with us in the Qing Dynasty, he was also loyal to his duties. At that time, Chongzhen was faint and the political situation was dark, which led to Yuan s death. Emperor Qianlong was very sympathetic to Yuan Chonghuan s experience, and ordered to find out whether Yuan Chonghuan had descendants and whether there were officials in future generations, and he was going to give him a reward. During the Qing Dynasty, Emperor Jiaqing allowed Yuan Chonghuan to enter the official sacrifice activities of the Qing Dynasty. Only these few examples can be verified by the Qing ruler s praise of Yuan Chonghuan.

In some historical works and literary works, it is considered that the ruler of the Qing Dynasty elevated Yuan Chonghuan s historical status. The commendation of Yuan Chonghuan was mainly in recognition of his loyalty, and he called on the subjects of the Qing Dynasty to be loyal to the rulers of the Qing Dynasty. This means the legitimacy of the rule of the Qing Dynasty ruler. However, some professional scholars have pointed out that Yuan Chonghuan has always been a controversial historical figure. The rulers of the Qing Dynasty did not brag about Yuan Chonghuan. His positive evaluation is very limited, and some official history books, including History of the Ming Dynasty, also praised Yuan Chonghuan. The killing of Mao Wenlong was negative. In fact, it wasn t until the end of the Qing Dynasty that Yuan Chonghuan s anti-Qing feat was artificially touted and elevated in order to oppose the political needs of the Qing Dynasty. The so-called Qing rulers praised Yuan Chonghuan as a historical misunderstanding

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