Introduction to ancient architecture

From the development of square and round shallow cave houses excavated in Banpo site, Shaanxi Province, it has a history of six or seven thousand years. The Great Wall, built on high mountains and winding for thousands of miles, is a miracle in the history of human architecture; the Anji bridge, built in Zhao county, Hebei Province, in the Sui Dynasty, has long been in the forefront of bridge science in the world on the perfect combination of science and technology and art; the existing wooden tower of Yingxian Buddhist temple in Shanxi Province, which is 67.1 meters high, is the highest existing wooden structure in the world; the Forbidden City of Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing, then It is the largest, exquisite and well preserved large-scale building complex in the world. As for Chinese classical garden, its unique artistic style makes it a pearl in Chinese cultural heritage. This series of existing buildings with superb technology, exquisite art and unique style are unique in the world architectural history, and are an important part of ancient splendid culture in China. They are like a history book of stone carving. They let us relive the history and culture of our motherland, inspire our patriotic enthusiasm and national self-confidence. At the same time, they are also an art for people to watch and enjoy.
Frame structure
This is the most important feature of ancient Chinese architecture in architectural structure. Because the ancient Chinese architecture is mainly wood frame structure, that is to say, wood columns and beams are used to form the frame of the house. The weight of the roof and eaves is transferred to the column through the beam frame. The wall only plays the role of partition, rather than the structural part that bears the weight of the house. The old saying “the wall does not collapse the house”, points out the most important characteristics of the frame structure of Chinese architecture. This structure can make the house meet the ever-changing functional requirements of life and production under different climatic conditions. At the same time, because the wall of the house is not loaded with weight, the setting of doors and windows has great flexibility. In addition, this kind of framed wood structure forms a unique component of palaces, temples and other high-level buildings in the past, namely a bunch of “Dougong” under the eaves. It is composed of bucket shaped wood blocks and bow shaped horizontal wood, crisscross and pick out from the outside layer by layer, forming a large upper and small lower bracket. This kind of component not only has the function of supporting load beam frame, but also has the function of decoration. However, after Ming and Qing Dynasties, because of the simplification of the structure, the beam was placed directly on the column, which made the structural function of the Dougong almost disappear and become almost pure decoration.
Courtyard group layout
According to the ancient documents, from the ancient architectural image in the painting to the existing ancient architecture, there is a simple organization rule in the plane layout of ancient Chinese architecture, that is, every house, palace, yamen, temple and other buildings are composed of several single buildings and a number of surrounding corridors, walls and so on, surrounded by a courtyard. Generally speaking, most courtyards are connected back and forth to reach the backyard through the front yard, which is the product of the ideology of “orderly growth and childhood, different inside and outside” in Chinese feudal society. The main figures in the family, or the figures who should be isolated from the outside world (such as the girls of noble families), often live in the courtyard far away from the outer door, which forms a deep space organization of one courtyard after another. In the Song Dynasty Ouyang Xiu’s “butterflies in love with flowers”, there is “how deep is the courtyard?” The words “Houmen is like the sea” used by the ancients to describe the residence of senior officials, which vividly illustrates the important characteristics of Chinese architecture in layout. At the same time, this kind of courtyard group and layout are generally designed in a balanced and symmetrical way along the vertical axis (also known as the front and back axis) and the horizontal axis. The most important buildings are located on the vertical axis, and the secondary houses are located on the horizontal axis on the left and right sides. The group layout of Beijing Imperial Palace and the quadrangle in the north are typical examples that best reflect the group layout principle. This layout is closely related to the patriarchal clan system and the ethical system in the feudal society of China. According to the feudal patriarchal clan system and the concept of hierarchy, it is most convenient to make the differences in housing among the superiors and inferiors, the elders and the children, the men and the women, and the master and the servant.
Compared with European architecture, the artistic effect of Chinese courtyard style group layout has its unique artistic charm. Generally speaking, a European building is quite clear at a glance. But the ancient Chinese architecture, like a long scroll of Chinese painting, must be gradually unfolded over a period of time. It is impossible to see all of them at the same time. Entering a Chinese ancient building can only go from one courtyard to another, and you can only see it after all. The Forbidden City in Beijing is the most outstanding example. People enter from Tian’anmen Gate and enter another courtyard through each gate. From one end of the courtyard to the other, the courtyard and scenery are changing step by step, which gives people a deep feeling. The artistic image of the Forbidden City is also deeply in people’s mind.

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