Zhu Xi, when we mentioned Lei Guaner s name, the image of the figure was probably a serious physicist and a master of Confucianism. Many people may not know that Zhu Xi is a very active social construction guide. They participated in the establishment of academies, the establishment of rural small poverty alleviation loan banks—social warehouses, and the establishment of poor family childcare funds—juzicang.
In fact, from the Song Dynasty, almost all important social reconstruction movements had the enthusiasm of the Confucianists, or were advocated and led by the Confucianists. Neo-Confucianism is not simply a study of inner sages. The end point of Neo- Confucianism is still outer king, that is, ruling the country and flat world, that is, establishing an excellent order of human governance. The gentry of Song Dynasty influenced by Confucianism believed that the way to rebuild human order was not only ruling the country. It was more feasible and reliable to devote themselves to the construction of local society-what Song people called renli.
At a very young age, Zhu Xi was thinking about a question: Where is the end of the universe? He reads: Someone is five or six years old, and he is upset and said, What are things outside the four sides of the world? There must be something. If the wall is similar, there must be something behind the wall. At that time, the thinking was almost sick. It is not known what is behind the wall. Wu Hongfei, a talented woman in music, said that she was Hawking Disciples, thinking about the boundaries of the universe all day. Actually, Zhu Xi is like this. If Liu Cixin published Three-body in the twelfth century, Zhu Xi must be a three -body fan . In the Southern Song Dynasty, there was no Three Body . Zhu Xi had to turn over a natural science book in the Song Dynasty, Shen Kuo s Mengxi Bi Tan, to become familiar. I dare say that in addition to the Confucian classics, the book that most moved Zhu Xi s heart was this Mengxi Bi Tan . In his conversations with friends and doormen, Zhu Xi quoted Mengxi Bi Tan countless times.
Although Zhu Xi didn t know what the end of the universe was when he was old, he has been trying to make his own interpretations of some astronomical problems-these interpretations are undoubtedly great ideas in the 12th century. For example, he talked about the origin of the universe: In the beginning of heaven and earth, only the qi of yin and yang. This one of qi runs, grinding and grinding, and when it is rushed, it smashes a lot of dross; if there is nowhere in it, it forms a land in the center. Qi Those who are clear are the sky, the sun, the moon, and the stars. They are only outside, and the circle of the circle runs. The earth is only immobile in the center, not below.
In the Northern Song Dynasty, Shen Kuo used silver balls as an experiment: a projectile, half of which is coated with powder. If you look at it from the side, the powder is like a hook; if you look at it, it is perfectly round. This proves that the moon is a sphere, not itself. Glowing, moon profit and loss are caused by changes in the reflection of sunlight: The shape of the sun and the moon is like a pill. Why is it known? The moon profit and loss can be tested. There is no light on the moon, still silver pills, and the light of the sun is light. Light In the first birth, the sun was near, so the light side saw it like a hook; as the day went further, it was oblique, and the light was slightly full. Shen Kuo s hypothesis gave great inspiration to Zhu Xi, he told the doorkeeper many times: Month It is only affected by the sun. The moon is always round and never lacks. For example, the moon is only one side of the sun. It is suggested that the eclipse is because there is somethin g blocking the sun: The saying of the sun and the moon, Shen Cunzhong s Talk is good, the sun It s not a light meal, but it covers your ears. ”If you think that the ancients only knew “Tengu eats the moon,” Zhu Xi would despise you.
Zhu Xi also explained the formation of rain: Yang Qi is rising, and when it suddenly meets Yin, it is stale and it rains. Now we all know that rain is caused by heated water vapor meeting cold air at high altitude to form small droplets.. He explained the formation of thunder: It s just gas phase friction. Now we also know that thunder and lightning are caused by the collision of positive and negative charges in clouds. Also explain the formation of the rainbow: Hongfei can stop the rain, and the rain is already thin, and it is the sun that diffuses the rain. We also know that the rainbow is the refraction and reflection of sunlight by small water balls in the atmosphere. It can be seen that Zhu Xi s understanding of these natural phenomena is quite close to the scientific explanation.
Zhu Xi, a Confucianist, is full of interest in natural science, which is not surprising, because Confucianism emphasizes knowledge by means of things. This knowledge includes philosophical interpretation and scientific principles. Zhu Xi believes, In the middle of heaven and earth, there is a sky above and a ground below. There are many suns, moons, stars, mountains, trees, animals and beasts in the middle. These are all inferior devices. However, each of these inferior devices has its own reason. It s the metaphysical way. The so-called “geographical thing” means to be poor with the metaphysical device. ”So he showed a strong curiosity about everything in the universe and wanted to find out. His student Huang Yan said: Every astronomical, topographical, legal calendar, fighter planes are all insightful.
No wonder Mr. Hu Shi believes that “Zhu Zi himself is a scientist in some ways.” Another scholar of the Republic of China, Mr. Hu Daojing, simply declared: “Zhu Xi is a natural scientist with considerable achievements in history.”