The excavation of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal began in the Spring and Autumn Period, formed in the Sui Dynasty, developed in the Tang and Song dynasties, and eventually became the main waterway linking the five major river systems of the Hai River, the Yellow River, the Huai River, the Yangtze River, and the Qiantang River in the Yuan Dynasty. Over the course of more than 2,000 years, the Grand Canal has made important contributions to China s economic development, national unification, social progress, and cultural prosperity, and it still plays a huge role today.
The Grand Canal runs from Beijing (Yun County) in the north to Hangzhou (Yuhang) in the south and passes through Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang. The total length is about 1794 kilometers, and it has been excavated for more than 2500 years. The excavation and evolution of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal is roughly divided into three phases:
494 In 494 BC, Wang Fu s husband broke through the country, and he wanted to go north to the Central Plains to compete with Qi country. However, the biggest problem of long journeys is the transportation of military rations and weapons readiness. If it is transported by land, it will not only cost a lot, but the roads will not be smooth, and it will be difficult to achieve its purpose. However, one advantage of the Wu State is that Zhou Shi and advanced river-opening, shipbuilding, and shipping technologies make use of the dense natural conditions of the lakes between the river and the Huai River to measure in situ and excavate locally to connect several lakes. In 486 BC, Wu Wangfucha began to dig trenches in Yangzhou, connecting the two river systems of the Yangtze River and Huai River. In the Warring States Period, large ditches (drained from the north of Yuanyang County in Henan Province to the south to the Yellow River and poured into Putianze, east of Zhengzhou City today) and the ditch were successively opened, so as to communicate the rivers, rivers, rivers, and rivers …
The second phase of the canal mainly refers to the canal system of the Sui Dynasty. With Luoyang in the east as the center, the Tongji Canal was dug in the first year of the great cause (605) to directly communicate the traffic between the Yellow River and the Huai River, and to transform the trench and the Jiangnan Canal. The Yongji Canal was excavated in three years, and the Tongtong County in the north, together with the Guangtong Canal excavated in 584, formed a multi-branched canal system.
There is another interesting story about Emperor Sui Yang s excavation of the canal from the Beijing-Huaihe section to the south of the Yangtze River: It is said that Emperor Sui Yang had a dream at night and dreamed of a very beautiful flower, but I dont know what the flower s name is. Where. After waking up, Emperor Sui Yang ordered people to paint the flowers of his dreams into patterns, and published the emperor list to find people who knew such flowers. Wang Shichong , who had seen Qionghua in Yangzhou at that time, happened to be in Beijing. When he saw this yellow list, he unveiled it and entered the palace. He told Emperor Sui Yang that the flower painted on the picture was called Qionghua and grew in Yangzhou. After hearing this, Emperor Sui Yang wanted to see him, and he opened a canal, built a dragon boat, and went to Yangzhou with the queen and concubine to see Qionghua. The canal dug by Emperor Sui Yang in the city of Yangzhou made Yangzhou a transportation hub betwe en the north and the south. With the benefit of transportation, it was one of the most prosperous areas in China.
The third phase of the canal mainly refers to the Yuan, Ming and Qing periods. The key sections excavated in the Yuan Dynasty were the Surabaya to Weihe section and Dadu to Tongzhou section in Shandong. The purpose was to avoid bypassing Luoyang, cut and straighten , and shorten the voyage by more than 900 kilometers compared to the Sui Dynasty canal. This is the predecessor of the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal today.. The foundations of the Yuan Canal were maintained in the Ming and Qing dynasties, and the river sections in Shandong that had been depleted at the end of the Yuan were re-drained during the Ming and Qing dynasties. (Today s Huaiyin), the Canal Mouth Canal, Tongji Xinhe, Zhonghe and other canal projects separated by the Yellow Transport were carried out , and the Yuehe River was excavated between the Jianghuai and Huaiyin to separate the lakes.
The Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal is a great project created by the working people in ancient China. It is a living and flowing important human heritage. It is important for economic and cultural development and exchanges between North and South China, especially for the development of industrial and agricultural economies along the route. The rise of towns has played a huge role.