The Sword of Goujian of the King of Yue——Chinese Archeological Discovery

There is an idiom in China, which is called rewarding the guts. The allusions mentioned in this idiom are in 493 BC. In order to get revenge, Wu Wangfucha led the troops to attack and captured the king. Later, Gou Jian expressed his obedience to King Wu and gained the trust of King Wu. After three years, he was released and returned to China.

After Gou Jian returned to China, he was determined to take revenge. In order to exercise his will, he did not use a quilt when he slept, but lay on the grass, and hung a bitter gall in his living room, which he could see every day when he was sitting and lying. Before every meal, he has to taste the bitterness to remind himself not to forget the shame.

Wu Goujian actively took various measures to develop production and went to farm in person. At the same time, he also rewarded fertility, increased population, and enhanced national strength. After 10 years of hard work, he finally made Yue Guo gradually stronger, and Finally defeated Wu Guo, who was humiliated by himself. Immediately afterwards, Gou Jian went north into the Central Plains and became a hegemon of the late spring and autumn in the princes of the Xuzhou Assembly.

Wu Goujian has a hobby, that is, casting a famous sword. According to the ancient book Exhumation, The Yue King Gou Jian made the workers worship the god of Kunwu with white horses and white cows, and gold was cast into the essence of the eight swords. Alas, five are terrified, six are insane, seven are evil, and eight are really hard. Not only that, Gou Jian also keen to collect and treasure various famous swords.

At that time, there was a very famous sword connoisseur named Xue Zhuan. When he saw a sword called Pure Fishing collected by Gou Jian, he couldn t help but be surprised, saying that he had never seen such a rare treasure. The swords collected by Gou Jian at the time were indeed the best.

Because of the many famous swords of Gou Jian, and their collection value is extremely high, and the ancient style of martial arts is strong, a rare god soldier is even sought after by the world. Therefore, after Gou Jian died, many people had racked their brains to find the sword he had treasured, but found nothing.

The sword has a history of thousands of years, and the world has called it the ancestor of a hundred soldiers. Because of its ease of carrying and quick use, swords have always been sought after by the emperors, scribes and merchants of the dynasties. However, who created the sword is still a mystery.

Some people once thought that the sword should appear according to the description of The Mountain of Xige Tianlu, which came out of gold, and was especially made by it, thinking that it was the sword armor, and the beginning of the sword, Yu Xuanyuan s Huangdi era; some people also said that the sword should appear in the late Yin and early Zhou dynasties, because there is a record in Yishushu \\ u0026 middot; Ke Yin , after the victory of the battle of Makino, the king of war stabbed the king of the king with Qinglu The body, this Qinglu was interpreted as sword name in ancient books. According to research, the name Qinglu is actually Turkic, and the Zhou people came from Rongdi, and it is easier to master this weapon than a businessman. Therefore, some people inferred that the sword should be introduced into China from West Asia through the nomadic people.

But no matter who invented the sword, the sword has a long history, so it is well-deserved to be called the ancestor of a hundred soldiers by future generations. In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, most swords were made of copper, and the quality of the sword was upgraded to a higher level, and the smelting technology gradually improved. During the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods, the vassal states in various places standardized the rules of sword making, which also made swords the most important short weapon and one of the weapons that must be prepared by all social classes.

Winter In the winter of 1965, archaeologists discovered two swords in a tomb in Chu, Jiangling, Hubei, one of which is the legendary Yue King Goujian, which has been lost in legend. The length of this sword is 55.7 cm, the blade body is 4.6 cm wide, and the hilt is 8.4 cm long. The head of the sword rolls outwards in a circular hoop shape, casting 11 very thin concentric circles inside. The golden yellow sword body is covered with black diamond-shaped patterns. The sword grid (the protruding part between the sword body and the hilt) protrudes outwards, with blue glass on the front and turquoise on the back. The sword is engraved with the inscription of 8 birds with the wrong body in gold, and the handwriting is very clear. The sword is extremely sharp, and more than 20 layers of paper are scratched. This sword has been buried underground for more than 2,000 years. When it was unearthed, it was still shining with no rust.

In 1968, archaeologists unearthed two more swords from an ancient tomb in Hebei Province. This ancient tomb is the tomb of Emperor Han Sheng, the emperor of Han Wu, and it has been more than 2,000 years ago. When Liu Sheng was King of Jing , he began to plan for his own funeral. He made people dig a large cave as his future graveyard, and made a golden jade garment, hoping that wearing this treasure garment would make his body never rot. It sa pity that when the excavation was unearthed, the jade pieces on the jade-lined jade clothes had been scattered, and the corpse had already decayed, and there were only a few broken teeth. The two swords as funerary items, however, were bright and rust -free.

Whether it is the sword of Yue Wang Goujian or the sword of Liu Sheng, they all have gone through thousands of years of history. Why can they still be so bright when they see the sun again?

According to the Record of Kao Gong Ji, the craftsmen of the Warring States Period have accumulated enough casting experience and can fully master the technology of smelting bronze. According to the different uses of the appliance, the ratio of copper to lead and tin in the alloy is also different. Such smelting technology is even ahead of Western countries for nearly a thousand years.

According to research, the main components of the Yue Wang Gou Jian sword are copper, tin, and a small amount of aluminum, iron, nickel, and sulfur alloys. The black diamond pattern of the sword body is vulcanized. The level of sharpening of the blade is comparable to that of modern products produced on precision grinding machines. Because the parts of the sword act differently, the ratio of copper to tin is not exactly the same. The sword spine contains more copper, which can make the sword tough and difficult to break; the blade contains high tin and high hardness, which can make the sword very sharp; the sulfur content in the pattern is high, and the copper sulfide can prevent rusting to keep the pattern beautiful.

Researchers found that the surface of the Yuewang Goujian sword had a layer of chromium salt compound about 10 microns thick. This discovery immediately caused a sensation in the world, because this treatment method of chromium salt oxidation is an advanced process that only appeared in modern times . Germany in 1937 and the United States invented and applied for patents in 1950. In the Spring and Autumn Period, Yue Wang Gou Jian actually started to use this technique!

In addition to the superior craftsmanship, the ancient King Goujian sword has a lot to do with its preservation method. Wu Wangfu, who was similar to the Yue King Gou Jian Sword era and had similar manufacturing techniques, was unearthed at the Mashan Chu Tomb in Jiangling in 1983. However, due to the poor preservation of the tomb, most of the coffins and other coffins have been rotten. When the spear was unearthed, not only was the spear handle almost completely rotted, but the bronze surface was covered with green rust. It can be seen that well-preserved is also one of the reasons that makes Goujian sword bright.

In 1974, archaeologists unearthed three bronze swords in a pottery pit in the tomb of Qin Shihuang in Lintong, Shaanxi. These 3 swords are buried in the wet soil about 5-6 meters from the ground, but when they were unearthed, they were sharp and bright, without any rust, and they could penetrate through more than 10 layers of newspapers at once!

The detection of electronic equipment shows that, in terms of production technology, the bronze sword of the pottery pit of Qin Shihuang has improved a lot compared with the sword of Goujian of Yue Wang. It uses a very superficial surface treatment technology, which is the chromium oxidation method. This method uses chromium salt as an oxidant, and forms a dense oxide film on the surface of the sword, which protects the sword from chemical reaction with external substances and rusts. This oxide layer is very, very thin, almost only 1 / 10th the thickness of a piece of paper. This is indeed a great achievement in the history of ancient Chinese material technology.

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