Speaking of the Mongolians in the Yuan Dynasty, everyone actually understands, well, they really controlled the power. In order to stabilize their power, they established a national hierarchy and separated the Han people from the people of other ethnic groups. This is very interesting , so what exactly is this strange national hierarchy? And can they be intermarried? In other words, can Han and Mongolian intermarry? Here are the following Let s continue to analyze and reveal the secrets to see what is going on. Do n t miss it if you are interested!
The Yuan Dynasty was a political power established by the Mongols, and it was also a multi-ethnic country with a large territory. After the demise of the Jin dynasty, large economic and cultural differences between ethnic groups and regions appeared in its territory. After the demise of the Southern Song Dynasty, such regional imbalances further expanded. As a ruling class, the Mongolians have a large number of ethnic groups under their governance, and their internal governance is under pressure. In order to better realize its rule, the Mongolian ruling class takes all measures to safeguard the special interests of the Mongolians and stabilize the government.
The Yuan and Yuan dynasties implemented a strict ethnic hierarchy. China with an 500,000 Mongolian population ruled 58 million people was unprecedented. In order to maintain political power and strengthen its rule, it adopted a policy of ethnic oppression and ethnic differentiation. Under this circumstance, the social system of Yuan Dynasty has undergone great changes, among which the changes of the hierarchy are becoming more and more obvious. The formation of the four classes of people has become the concrete embodiment of the social hierarchy of the Yuan Dynasty.
The term four-person system was first proposed by the scholars of the Republic of China Tu Mu in the Historical Records of Mengwuer. This system reflects the distinguishability of the Yuan Dynasty s ruling policy from other dynasties. The fourth -class system in the Yuan Dynasty was the legal hierarchy in the Yuan Dynasty. That is, the Yuan Dynasty adopted a differentiated ethnic oppression policy in order to maintain the privilege of the Mongolian aristocracy and weaken the resistance of all ethnic groups. The people of the whole country were divided into four levels: Mongolians, Semu people, Han people, and Nan people. When ethnic minority regimes face a large number of people of various ethnic groups, they usually establish similar ethnic division systems. According to the Liao History , Taizong concurrently ruled China, divided the south and the north, ruled the Khitan with the state system, and treated the Han people with the Han system.
The actual national and regional differences are the objective reasons for the fourth-class person system. Furthermore, the fourth-class system has different regulations in politics, law, and economy, with obvious racial discrimination. For example, Dalu Huachi in local institutions has real power, and this post can only be held by Mongolians. The Mongolian ranks first among all others and is the national surname of the Yuan Dynasty. The Semu people ranked second after the Mongolians, mainly referring to the Western Region people, such as Qincha, Tang Wu, Wei Wuer, Huihui and so on. The Han people are the third class, referring to the Han, Qidan, Jurchen and other ethnic groups in the Jin Dynasty north of the Huaihe River and the Yunnan (Dali) people who were conquered by Mongolia earlier. The Koreans in the northeast are also Han people. The Nan people are the fourth class, also called barbarians and newly attached people, referring to the various ethnic groups (people south of the Hua ihe River) in the former Southern Song Dynasty who were finally conquered by the Yuan Dynasty.
When the Yuan and Yuan Dynasties implemented ethnic discrimination and oppression policies, they also brought together and united the upper classes of various ethnic groups, and even granted them many privileges to expand the rule base of the Mongolian aristocracy. This ethnic policy of the Yuan Dynasty reflected the united dictatorship of the feudal ruling class with the Mongolian aristocracy as its core and the upper strata of all ethnic groups.
Relevant historical data corroborate that the fourth-class system first appeared in Kublai Khan to the second year of Yuan, and after continuous development, it was further improved in the years to come. In the reign of the eleventh emperor of the Yuan Dynasty in 1995 , although there was a strict social hierarchy based on the fourth-class system, the Yuan dynasty could not help intermarriage. In other words, people between the four levels can marry each other. This can be seen from a paragraph in the decree of the decree issued by Kublai Khan in February to February of the eighth year: Those people of the same color who marry each other in accordance with the common law; Lord, Mongolians are not.
Secondly, during the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongolian nobles did not marry with the civilians; the nobles married to each other, which is called Khu Da, that is, in-laws; in addition, An Da also married to each other, forming An Da Hu , That is, the brother-in-law relationship of righteous brothers.
However, in fact, the Yuan Dynasty did not make the fourth-class system mandatory. In fact, if you only look at the legal provisions of the Yuan Dynasty, you cant find this system at all. It s better than a system in the Yuan Dynasty. Open hidden rules. As a ruler, the Mongols are more necessary when facing the Han class whose civilization and social system are higher than them. Grass Seeds records: When the world was ruled by peace, Taiwan, provinces, and key officials were all from the North, Han and South, nothing but the best; the winners, but the prefectures, counties, and ranks. And there is none.
However, it is worth mentioning that, although during the Yuan Dynasty, various ethnic groups were allowed to marry freely, the Mongolians still had unique privileges. At that time, the status of the Han people was relatively low. In each village, Mongolians were stationed to serve as heads of guards. After the establishment of the Ming Dynasty, the Han people gradually gained their status.
The four-person system, an unfair national hierarchy, is treated differently. Yuan Yuanzhang, Volume 43, has a clear record: Until February of the second year (1265), Kublai Khan s sacrifice, even if the killer paid his life, he still burned and buried fifty-two silver. If the original sinner is pardoned The general rule stipulates that when the Mongols are fighting in the Hans, the Hans shall not return the report, and the evidence shall be presented in the lawsuit where they are located; if there is a violation, the punishment shall be severely punished. The number of Han people under the Yuan Dynasty became increasingly dissatisfied with the Yuan Dynasty s rule.
Both the book People in the Western Regions and Politics in the Early Yuan Dynasty and Cambridge History of China hold the view that the four-class system has more disadvantages than benefits, even though it played a role of strengthening rule in Yuan society, The final implementation and implementation of the nationwide actual impact caused the intensification of contradictions between various nationalities and regions in the country and led to social unrest, until the rule of the Yuan Dynasty was overthrown by the peasant uprising.