Ancient Chinese gardens, or traditional Chinese gardens or classical gardens. It has a long history, rich cultural content, distinctive personality characteristics, but also colorful and extremely artistic charm. It is one of the three largest garden systems in the world. It can be Considered as the best of art among ancient Chinese architectural types. In the history of nearly five thousand years, it has left its deep traces, and also added a dazzling pearl of oriental civilization to the treasure house of world cultural heritage.
In the corner of the world, there is a great miracle of human beings. This miracle is the Yuanmingyuan. Everything that a near-superhuman nation can imagine is gathered here. Just imagine a kind of indescribable building, a kind of moon palace. It looks like a wonderland, that is the Yuanmingyuan.
Yuanyuanming Garden is located in Haidian, the western suburbs of Beijing, and is adjacent to the Summer Palace, covering an area of more than 5,200 acres. It was built in the forty-eighth year of Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty (1709 AD ). It was originally a Gift Garden given by Emperor Kangxi to the emperor s fourth son (Yongzheng). After the reign of Yongzheng in 1722, it was constructed on a large scale in accordance with the pattern of the Forbidden City. During the Qianlong period, the national strength of the Qing dynasty was the climax of the construction of the Yuanmingyuan. The Yuanmingyuan was expanded on an unprecedented scale with the power of the country. At that time, Changchun Garden was added and several small gardens were merged into Qichun Garden (aka Wanchun Garden) These three gardens are adjacent to each other and are collectively called Yuanmingyuan. The three parks are separated by a wall. The front is Qichun Park, and the two parks side by side are Yuanming Park on the left and Changchun Park on the right. Later, it was continued by Jiaqing Daoguang Xianfeng, and the five emperors built it after 151 years. The perimeter is about 10 kilometers, with a total area of 347 hectares. The Yuanmingyuan Garden was famous for its large regional scale, outstanding gardening art, exquisite architecture and rich cultural collection. Its reputation spread to Europe, and it is known as the garden of a thousand gardens and the model of the world garden.
Yuanmingyuan Garden is a large-scale and beautifully landscaped garden created artificially. The gardener uses various methods of Chinese classical garden Laoshan and water management to create a complete landscape and landscape as the skeleton of the landscape. The scenes of the Three Gardens of Yuanming Dynasty are all water-themed, which is interesting because of water. The water body excavated with spring eyes and springs accounts for more than half of the entire park area. Large water surfaces such as Fuhai are more than 600 meters wide; medium water surfaces such as the back lake are about 200 meters wide; many small water surfaces are 40-50 meters wide, which are used as close-up sketches of water features. The looping river channel connects these large and small water surfaces into a complete river and lake system, forming the veins and bonds of the whole park, and is used for boating and transportation. Rocks made of stacked stones, Gangfu made of soil, and islands, isles, isl ands, and embankments are distributed in the park, accounting for about 1/3 of the entire park area. They are combined with the water system to form more than a hundred garden spaces with complex mountain and complex water. These artificially created landscapes are not only the epitome of natural scenery, but also the reproduction of the scenery of the rivers and rivers in the misty waters.
Yuanyuanming Garden is the largest of the three gardens, and was mainly built in the late Kangxi and Yongzheng periods. By the end of Yongzheng, the garden landscape had spread over the entire 3,000 acres. During the Qianlong period, there were many additions and reconstructions in the garden.
During the heyday of the Yuanmingyuan, it was both a royal garden of unprecedented scale and the center of the Qing emperor s order to exercise power. From Kangxi to Xianfeng, the six emperors lived here for three or four months each year, and handled government affairs and various political activities.
Fuhai is the center of the whole park and the largest water surface in the park. There are three square islands of different sizes connected by bridges in the center of the sea. Seven islands of Pengdao Yaotai and Changlailou, Sui an room are built on the central island. Waiting for the building. There is a pavilion of Three Mountains of Erhai Lake on the southeast island, crossing the bridge to the northwest to the north island. This architectural pattern also belongs to the one pond and three mountains plan. At that time, there were about 600 main garden buildings with plaques hanging in the garden, which was the crown of the royal gardens in ancient and modern times.
In the ruins of the northwest, you can still find several large-scale palace ruins. There are the Zhengda Guangming Hall in the Shang Dynasty, the Jiuzhou Qingyan who held a grand banquet, the Anyou Palace dedicated to the images and sacrifices of Qing emperors of the past, and the Wenyuan Pavilion, a library.
Changchun Garden is an affiliated garden of Yuanmingyuan. It was built around the tenth year of Qianlong (1745) and covers a total area of 1,000 acres. It was originally the hometown of Shiyizhu, a pearl of Kangxi University, with good garden foundation . This is also the place where the Emperor Qianlong planned to return to government in his later years.
After the Emperor Qianlong descended Jiangnan, the four major Jiangnan gardens imitated buildings in the Yuanmingyuan Garden, except for the Anlan Garden, all in Changchun Garden. The largest building complex in the park is Chunhuaxuan, built for Tibetan Chunhua Pavilion.
This park is divided into two scenic spots, north and south. The Southern District is based on the Chunhuaxuan Group as the main building, and the surrounding lake islands are equipped with ten attractions, all adapted to local conditions and water, such as Ruyuan Garden , Jianyuan Garden, Lion Forest, Haiyue Cardigan, and Yulinglong Pavilion. The North District is a horizontal and long area. Six European 18th-century Baroque palace-style buildings are arranged in the district. They are named Xunqiqu, Water Storage Building, Bird Cage, Square Exterior, Haiyan Hall, Yuanyuan View, commonly known as Western House. The shape of these buildings and the pillars, cornice bases, doors and windows on the façade are all European-style architectural practices, but the detailed carvings are also mixed with Chinese-style patterns. There is also an artificial fountain in front of the building. Xiyanglou Architecture is the first complete work of European architectural culture introduced to China, a nd also the first creative attempt to combine the two major European and Chinese garden systems.
The former garden landscape of Changchun Garden was painted by the court painter only in Qianlong period. A large panoramic picture was painted by the British and French forces in 1860.
The garden was originally a gift garden of Prince Yunxi, the thirteenth emperor of Emperor Kangxi, and was founded no later than the beginning of Yongzheng. During the Qianlong reign, it was given to Fu Heng, a bachelor of the university (a bachelor and minister of military aircraft of Baohedian University, a brother of Emperor Qianlong). In the thirty-five years of Qianlong (1770), the plaque of Qichun Garden was re-suspended in this garden, and it was officially classified as the Yuanming Garden. At that time, there was a fascination among the palace halls, and only sporadic repairs were made. Emperor Qianlong had not yet resided in the garden. From the sixty years of Qianlong (1795), large-scale reconstruction and additions were carried out, and more than ten garden landscapes were completed in the tenth year of Jiaqing (1805). In the fourteenth year of Jiaqing (1809), the new palace gate was completed. By the nineteenth year of Jiaqing (1814), Qichun Garden reached its full scale and became one of the main residences of the Jiaqing Emperor s permanent residence.
In the first year of Kuo Daoguang (1821), the East Road of Qichunyuan was reconstructed and decorated, and it was dedicated to the residence of the empress and empress. The scenery on the west road still belongs to the two emperor garden residences of Daoguang (reigned from 1821 to 1850) and Xianfeng (reigned from 1851 to 1861).
The garden was destroyed by looting and arson by the British and French coalition forces in 1860. It has survived a few buildings such as the palace gate area, the solemn French realm, the Huiji Temple, Zhanqingxuan, and Lumanxuan. Individual buildings were restored during the renovation period in Tongzhi. The invasion of the Eight-Power Allied Forces in 1900 was completely destroyed in the war. So far, there are more than ten dilapidated houses in Zhengjue Temple.
The area around the northwestern suburbs of Beijing has the victory of mountains, springs, lakes, and marsh. It has always been the place where the feudal emperor and his relatives established the palace garden. During the Kangxi and Qianlong periods of the Qing Dynasty, social and economic development was remarkable, and the state treasury was full. The Qing emperor pursued a garden life of blessing of God, which led to an unprecedented scale of garden construction in this area.
Nowadays, people can only enjoy the magnificent scenery of Yuanmingyuan in paintings. But this once-prosperous, even through the description of the text, seems to be intuitively felt.
There are more than one hundred gardens and scenic buildings in the Yuanyuan Third Garden, which is commonly referred to as one hundred landscapes. The gardens, palaces, pavilions, pavilions, pavilions, pavilions, corridors and other garden buildings total about 160,000 square meters. 10,000 square meters more than the entire building area of the Forbidden City. The buildings in the park not only absorb the advantages of the palace-style buildings of the past, but also break through the constraints of official specifications in many aspects such as plane configuration, appearance, and group combination. The French missionary Wang Zhicheng once described an image. He said: The architecture of the Yuanmingyuan has many changes, and it is uneven and unpredictable. Each of its small palaces seems to be made according to strange models, as if arranged randomly, none of them are the same as the others. People can t appreciate these scenes at a glance, they must study it carefully littl e by little.
Yuanmingyuan Garden is a waterscape garden. The water surface occupies more than half of the entire garden area. Some landscapes are named directly on the theme of water. Among the mountains and rivers, there are more than 140 scenic spots distributed, combining the characteristics of some famous gardens in Jiangnan at that time, blending the essence of ancient gardening art in China, and using the art of gardens in the gardens to melt the poetic and artistic ideas into the ever-changing scene. In. Among them, more than 50 scenic spots directly imitate famous scenic spots in other places, such as Pinghu Autumn Moon, Sudi Chunxiao, Santan Yinyue, Quyuan Fenghe, etc., all come from Hangzhou s West Lake Ten Scenes, not only imitating architecture, Even the name is copied over. There are Wuling Spring imitating the peach blossom source, Xifeng Xiu imitating Lushan, stacked stone maze imitating a lion forest, Ruyuan imitating the Zhanyuan Garden, and recruiting crane pedal s imitating the solitary mountain Fanghe Pavilion. And so on, brought together the essence of countless scenic spots and famous gardens in the world.
Yuanyuanming Garden is not only famous for its gardens, but also a royal museum with a rich collection. The halls of the park are decorated with countless rosewood furniture and extremely valuable artworks and decorations. There are many rare cultural relics at home and abroad on display , and the treasures collected and displayed are endless. The Wenyuan Pavilion in the garden is one of the four royal collection houses in the country. There are precious book relics such as Siku Quanshu, Integration of Ancient and Modern Books and Siku Quanshu Huiyao in various places in the park.
In the architectural art, the Yuanmingyuan also formed a unique style combining Chinese and Western. At the northern end of the Changchun Garden, a group of garden-style European-style palaces was originally built. Among them, there is a Western building . It is the first time that a Chinese Baroque building appeared in a Chinese royal garden. It is modeled after the French Versailles Palace. Designed by foreign experts such as painter Lang Shining, it was founded in the 12th to 24th years of the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty (1747 ~ 1759). The building materials are mostly carved and carved stone. The main scenic area is equipped with various forms of water land and institutions. fountain. Garden road paving, hedge trimming, and fences, stone carvings, bronze statues, etc. all have western characteristics, but the roof is covered with unique Chinese glazed tiles, and the walls are inlaid with glazed tiles. At the same time, traditional Chinese stone technology and Brick carving craft. At that time, it could be regarded as the only garden building group in the world with both Eastern and Western styles. Therefore, it was hailed as the garden of a million gardens in the West. The magnificent scenery in the world is set to the forefront. The Yuanmingyuan Garden, a collection of thousands of years of outstanding gardening art in China, has pushed China s classical gardens to a new height. However, it was this world-famous garden that was brutally sacked by the British and French forces in the decade of Xianfeng (1860) and became a page of humiliation in the modern history of our country.
10On October 6, 1860, the British and French forces broke into the Yuanmingyuan and immediately ransacked frantically. The first to break into the Yuanmingyuan was the French aggression army. They grabbed everything when they saw it. The treasures in the pockets of each French soldier were worth about 30,000 to 40,000 francs. They entered empty-handed and returned with a full load. In the French military camp, there are rare clocks, colorful satin silks, and precious works of art worth 30 million francs. Although the British aggression army was one step late, the gold and silver treasures were also full of pockets. Even worse, they shattered large porcelain and enamel bottles that could not be removed. After the British and French aggression forces robbed Yuanmingyuan, in order to eliminate the stolen goods and cover up the crime, the British Plenipotentiary Minister Erkin, with the support of British Prime Minister Palmerston, ordered the burning of Yuanmingyuan. On October 18, 3,500 British troops rushed into the park and set fire to the Old Summer Palace. The fire remains intact for three days, resulting in the destruction of more than 20 kilometers of the palace. After the disaster, only 13 scenic spots remain in the Yuanmingyuan. Nearly 300 eunuchs, maids and craftsmen in the Anyou Palace were buried in the sea of fire, and this world-famous garden immediately turned into a piece of scorched earth.
The Empress Dowager wanted to rebuild this famous garden on the ruins. Due to financial difficulties, progress was slow and the quality of the project was poor. In 1900, the Allied Powers invaded Beijing and the Yuanmingyuan was ransacked a second time. After the foreign invaders retreated, the corrupted Eight Banners soldiers of the Qing Dynasty colluded with the bullies and demolished the remaining palaces and palaces, and even sold the stones and bricks for auction, and the wood and trees were burned for sale. Wasteland. Only the remaining pillars of the water-viewing method at the southern end of the Yuanyang Temple in the Western House, and the remaining broken walls of a few ancient buildings have stood on the ruins to this day, which has become a witness to the crime of imperialist aggression against China.