Zhaozhou Bridge occupies a very important position in the history of Chinese and foreign bridges and has a profound influence on the bridge architecture of future generations. Zhaozhou Bridge is well-deserved as the first bridge in the world. It is a precious cultural heritage that integrates architecture, art and traditional culture.
Zhaozhou Bridge is also called Anji Bridge. It is about 2.5 kilometers south of Zhao County, about 40 kilometers southeast of Shijiazhuang. It crosses the north and south sides of water. It has a history of more than 1,400 years. It is the earliest ancient open shoulder single voucher stone arch bridge built in the world. Because the bridge is built entirely of stone, it is also commonly known as the big stone bridge. Since ancient times, it has been known as Kiki Qiao solid protection , armor in the world .
According to research, Zhaozhou Bridge was designed by the famous craftsmen Li Chun and Li Tong from the 20th year of Sui Kaihuang (600 years) to the first year of great cause (605 years).
望 The columns on both sides of the Zhaozhou Bridge deck are carved with various exquisite patterns, which are vigorous and vivid in shape. Structurally, the arc-shaped flat arch and open-shoulder small arch give people a kind of giant body light and eager to fly. See the softness in the rigid lines, the lightness in the hidden weight, and the timelessness in the majestic. A dragon gate stone with a dragon head carved on the top of the main arch, and the ascending stone of the eight- petal lotus dot the side of the bridge. These statues express the wish of the bridge to be protected from water damage and to live forever.
In the history of more than 1400 years, Zhaozhou Bridge has withstood numerous floods, 8 major earthquakes, and heavy vehicle pressure. It still stands tall on the river. Western scholars acknowledge that this is due to the open-shoulder arch design of the Zhaozhou Bridge, which is the ancestor of many modern reinforced concrete bridges and has opened up a generation of bridge style.
On September 4, 1991, the Zhaozhou Bridge was selected by the American Society of Civil Engineers as the twelfth International Civil Engineering Milestone in the world, and a bronze medal International Civil Engineering Historical Monuments was built on the east side of the north end of the bridge. It is the only one in the country, and it is truly famous.
The main arch of Zhaozhou Bridge is composed of 28 independent arch coupons side by side. When building the bridge, the middle arch and the two sides are built first. Each arch is about 35 cm wide and the length of each stone is different, ranging from 70 cm to 109 cm., Each piece of stone is connected by two waist iron. Each arch voucher can be repaired separately. Because the arch vouchers on the outer side are easily weathered and damaged, the five arch vouchers on the west side of the bridge collapsed in the Ming Dynasty and rebuilt in the Ming and Qing Dynasties (there is no record of repair, it can be clearly seen that it is different from the stone in the middle). In 1955, 5 arch coupons that collapsed on the east side were rebuilt, and in 1956, the arch of the bridge was reinforced with steel mesh. The middle 18 arch coupons were also built in the Sui Dynasty.
The largest scientific contribution of Zhaozhou Bridge lies in its creation of open shoulder arch, the first in the history of bridges in the world. That is, four side-by-side small holes are laid on both shoulders of the large arch , which not only increases the flow channel, saves stones, reduces the weight of the bridge body, but also facilitates the passive pressure of the small arch on the large arch, and enhances the stability of the bridge body.
Zhaozhou Bridge has a net span of 38 meters, a vector height of 7.24 meters, and a vector span ratio of less than 1: 5. Its shape is simple and stretchy, and its structure is scientific and perfect. As a masterpiece in the history of the bridge, it has built a school style and has continued for centuries. Many years have passed, and the Zhaozhou Bridge has been the holder of the largest span of the stone arch bridge in the world. It was not broken when the CERET bridge with a net span of 45.5 meters was built in the south in France in 1339. However, the record was only half broken at this time. Er, because the bridge of CERET Bridge is less than half the width of Zhaozhou Bridge. And another technical indicator-the vector span ratio, Zhaozhou Bridge maintained a record of 1000 years, until the completion of the Trinity Bridge of Florence in 1567.
The reason why the Zhaozhou Bridge still stands still after more than 1400 years, in addition to the Party and the government s attention and protection, it also lies in its three strengths in construction.
The first is that the coupon is smaller than the semicircle. In our country, we usually call arc-shaped bridges, gates and other buildings coupons. Generally, the coupons of Shiqiao are mostly semi-circular. However, the Zhaozhou Bridge has a large span, from 37.04 meters to this end. If the voucher is rounded, the bridge hole will be 1,852 meters high. Crossing the bridge with horses and horses in this way is like struggling across a hill, which is very strenuous. The coupon of the Zhaozhou Bridge is an arc smaller than a semicircle. This not only reduces the height of the bridge, reduces the stone and labor for repairing the bridge, but also makes the bridge very beautiful, much like Changhong in the sky.
Second must be a side-by-side hole. It uses 28 small coupons side by side to form a 9.6-meter wide ticket. However, with the side-by-side building method, the stones of each narrow coupon are not related to each other, and are not as strong as the column type. In order to make up for this shortcoming, when constructing the Zhaozhou Bridge, iron nails were added between the stones of each narrow coupon to make them a whole. Narrow coupons built in parallel , even if one is broken, will not affect the overall situation, it is easy to repair, and it will not affect the traffic on the bridge when repairing the bridge.
The third is absolutely hitting empty. The coupons are called bangs. Generally, the collision of stone bridges is built with stone, but the collision of Zhaozhou bridge is not solid, but one or two curved coupons are built on each of the shoulders of the coupon. In this way, four small coupons were added to the bridge, which saved about 180 cubic meters of stone and reduced the weight of the bridge by about 500 tons. Furthermore, when the river rises, part of the water can flow down from the coupon, which can not only make the water flow smoothly, but also reduce the impact of the flood on the bridge and ensure the safety of the bridge.
There are many beautiful legends about the construction of Zhaozhou Bridge. In the past, the river flooded, and the people only ferryed by wooden boats. Luban, the carpenter s ancestor, turned the flock into stones overnight to build a bridge. Zhang Guolao and Wang Chai came to try the bridge together. Zhang Guo always rides on a donkey. The donkey s back is filled with the sun and the moon. Lord Chai pushed a cart and carried the Five Mountains. Walk in the center of the bridge, pressing the bridge to shaky. Seeing that the situation was not good, Lu Ban jumped into the water and supported the bridge with his hands, so that the stone bridge was safe and sound. To date, clear donkey hoof prints, driveway grooves , and knee prints remain on the bridge; Luban s handprints remain on the bottom of the bridge. As the folk song Xiao Fang Niu sang: Zhaozhou Shiqiao Lu Banxiu repaired the jade railing sage to stay; Zhang Guolao walked on the donkey bridge, and Chai Wang strolled a ditch.