Qiongshan and Wenchang are the most popular mangrove forests in Hainan. Among them, the Dongzhaigang Mangrove Forest Reserve in Qiongshan City is one of the most visited scenic spots. With an area of more than 4,000 hectares, it is the first mangrove forest reserve established in China.
Mangroves are a plant community of evergreen shrubs or trees unique to tropical and subtropical coastal mudflats. Most of its tree species belong to the mangrove family. Ecologically, they are called mangroves and are green plants that can grow in seawater.
Red In the world, there are 81 families of 23 mangroves, 23 families of Hainan, 41 species, and the highest is 10 meters. The mangroves here grow well. At high tide, the dense mangrove trunks are submerged by the tide, and only the green canopy undulates to become a spectacular sea forest. There are waterfowls spreading wings, and tourists can take a boat to go deep into the forest.
Some species of mangroves have a special vitrogen reproduction phenomenon. The seeds germinate in the fruit of the mother tree, grow into small seedlings, and fall down from the tree with the fruit. It can grow in the mudflat as long as 2 to 3 hours For the new strain. If it falls in the sea, it will follow the waves and will not die for several months, and see the mud take root.
The mangrove tree is one of the important signs of the tropical coast, it can protect the shore from waves, and it is also an ideal place for fish and shrimp to breed. The mangrove tree itself has important economic and medicinal values.
The ecological environment and water features of mangroves are peculiar and magnificent, and have a high appreciation value. Someone once praised with prose poems: In all the places where plants and trees are unwilling and unable to stand, they will hold hands side by side with silent tenacity, forming an unbreakable The team is romantic between the sea and the shore, chic between the water and the sky, turning the wind into a whisper for the couple, and turning the shocking waves into the poet s chant. … … The green poem that sounds the sea breeze, tastes the bitter and salty red history, you embroider the gorgeous and deep epic with the bloody body on the long coastline of the heat island, and become the proud scenery of Hainan.
1. Transportation: Dongzhai Port is an unconventional tourist destination, and it is more troublesome to go by car. First take the bus to Qiongshan in Haikou, get off at the Wugong Temple, and then go to Chongba (Yuanfeng) or Qukou (4 yuan / person) on the opposite side of Hongcheng Lake Road and drive for one and a half Hours to Yanfeng, get off the bus and take the style car characteristic of Hainan to reach the scenic area, and then you can take a speedboat to see the mangroves.
On the beach in the southeast of Qiongshan City, there is a dense set of trees, like a green fairy floating elegantly, bathing in light green water. When the tide is high, she only sees part of her graceful tree crown, which has the taste of semi-embracing the pipa half-covered; at low tide, her trunk with the fragrance of the sea mud shyly reveals the sea, like a Qihu Wan Wan Begins screen! This is the world-famous mangrove forest, people nicknamed her Underwater Forest.
The mangrove forest is a unique plant community on tropical and subtropical coastal beaches. It has vitality that many other plants do not have. Mangroves belong to the evergreen shrubs of the mangrove family. The bark is reddish brown and the leaves are dark green. Its roots and branches resemble cobwebs and are very developed. The mangrove has a peculiar function. Its roots and leaves can filter the salty water that causes the plant to die, so it is the only green shrub that can grow in the mud and sea water along the beach in tropical areas. There are 82 families and 24 species in mangroves all over the world, of which 16 species are viviparous plants, and they are the only plants in the plant world that reproduce and grow in viviparous ways. Because viviparous mangroves are one of the special landscapes in the plant kingdom, several countries with mangroves in the world have listed mangroves as ecological protection areas, and protect mangroves as valuable natural resources. The Ma ngrove Society has been established internationally, and regular academic exchanges are held to promote the protection and development of mangroves.
The way in which mangroves are born is very special. The mangrove seed does not fall after maturity, but germinates on the mother tree, stretches out young roots, grows the fetal roots into stems, and produces two leaves on the upper end to become a young tree. Once the young tree has grown, it will fall off from the mother tree by itself. Because the stems and roots are heavier, the young tree falls vertically, and the young roots are well inserted into the beach mud and continue to grow independently, and can grow into a small shrub after one to two years. From seed maturation to full maturity, this series of life-creating processes of mangroves can be completely compared with the behavior of mammals to breed offspring. Adapted to seawater, viviparous trees , and mangroves, these two characteristics are unique in plants, so it is highly valued by scientists and people in many countries around the world.
The mangrove forest in Qiongshan City has a long history of growth and still maintains its original state. For the value of mangroves, the people of Hainan have long known. As early as twenty-five years of Daoguang in the Qing Dynasty (1845 AD) , the local government of Qiongdao and Qing Dynasty had taken measures to ban mangroves.. In 1980, the Guangdong Provincial People s Government re-established a mangrove nature reserve in the waters of Dongzhai Port, Qiongshan City. This is the first mangrove forest reserve established in China. Donggangzhai Mangrove Forest Protection Area stretches more than 50 kilometers, with a total area of more than 60,000 acres. Thousands of mangroves have roots staggered with roots, branches climbing up branches, leaves covering the leaves, setting out a confusing formation. There are 29 families of 16 mangroves in China, and 18 families of 10 families are distributed in Donggangzhai, accounting for more than 60% of the country s mangrove species.
The mangrove species in Pangdong Gangzhai mainly include red sea limpet, Magnolia lanceolata, sharp-leaf sea lotus, carob, candel, white rug, sea bone root, sea lacquer, tung flower tree, rattle, water willow, king rui, sea mango and so on.
Donggangzhai mangrove forest is full of variety and scenery. Looking up from the coast, I saw a verdant canopy in the vast green sea. These mangroves are leafy, high and low in color. If you look around the harbor, you can clearly see that dozens of twisted air roots grow around the head of each tree, reaching a one-meter circle, and they are inserted into the silt in a cross, like a chicken cage. Locals call it chicken cage . The air roots of the mangrove are amazing! Some are like the head of a dragon and a monkey, and they are vivid; some are like a fairy in a myth, an old-fashioned dragon bell, which is quite poetic and artistic. The best time to watch the mangrove landscape is after the tide of the sea, and row a boat into the mangrove area. It is surrounded by strange and beautiful green canopies, and in the middle is a long and winding forest watercourse. The surging tide pushed the boat along the waterway , and left and right, the tourists saw the blue sea water and the green canopy, and felt the magical charm flowing over like the fog in the red trees, permeating the sea surface …
The Podonggangzhai Mangrove Reserve has not only high scientific research value and ornamental value, but also very important practical value. The mangrove forest is like a green Great Wall at sea, which effectively prevents the tide and wind from invading farmland and village houses. Its roots are deeply embedded in the soil, which can protect the soil from being washed away by the tide, and can also block rainwater from the land Washed down dirt. Its fallen leaves fall into the sea, and after a period of decay, it is converted into nutrient-rich food for fish, shrimp, shellfish and crabs.
Is the mangrove a red forest? Many foreign tourists often look to the text and ask such questions. But the answer is no. When you arrive at the Dongzhaigang Mangrove Forest Reserve, you will see a turquoise green in the sea. These evergreen shrubs or tree communities that grow in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coasts are called mangroves, just because they belong to the mangrove family in botany, and the bark and wood are often reddish-brown. In fact, their branches and leaves are dark green.
The distribution of mangroves in China takes southern Zhejiang as the northernmost boundary. Mangroves are not a single tree species, but a large family of a wide variety of evergreen trees and shrubs. In addition to arbor, such as sea lotus, carob tree, red winter eggplant, candel, mangrove, mulberry and other trees, there are shrubs such as rattle, tung flower tree, and bony soil. There are 23 families and 81 species of mangroves around the world, and China has 26 There are 31 species in each family, and there are 29 families in 15 families in Hainan Island, 8 of which are precious species unique to Hainan Island. Hainan Island has a total area of 4,772 hectares, accounting for 33% of the country. It is the area with the largest number of mangroves, the largest distribution and preservation area in the country. Occupying an important position in the world mangrove forest, it has extremely important protection, tourism and scientific research value.
The mandarin ducks grow on the mangrove forests on the tropical beaches. They are submerged at high tide, and only the green branches and leaves emerge from the water, becoming an oasis at sea. It is resistant to humidity, high temperature, strong light and salt and alkali. Why do mangroves soak in high-salt waters without dying out? This is because of its special physiological structure and function.
The epidermis of its branches and leaves has salt-discharging glands, which can excrete excess salt. Of course, those small salt glands are not easy to find. Another question is how does it reproduce during the high and high tide? Mangroves have their own unique reproduction methods. Its fruit does not land on the mother tree after maturity, it still hangs, and germinates in time. After the seedlings grow, it leaves the mother tree and takes root. So some people joked that it is a viviparous plant. When the seedlings detached from the mother body, the pointed end fell into the silt, and after a few hours it took root and grew, not afraid of flooding. Even after being washed away by the waves and following the current, it can take root after hours of encountering the beach and become an independent individual. The leaves of mangroves are green and soft, and the canopy is dense and orderly, and the structure is dense. The developed clumped tree roots exposed on the ground are thick and l ong, winding and intertwining, grasping the beach tightly, resisting storms and waves tenaciously, and are a natural barrier to protect the embankment, so they are called coast guards. Many of its roots are dense pillar roots from the base of the trunk, which are inserted directly into the mud flats; others are swollen and widened at the base of the trunk to form plate-like roots.
It is precisely because of its developed root system and dense branches that it can stably stabilize itself and withstand the storm. Even the mighty waves caused by the strong typhoon have greatly reduced the power in front of it, and virtually protect the village, farmland, and beaches. There is a mangrove tree covering an area of about about 10 square meters in Dongzhai Port. The diameter of the trunk is only 13 or 4 cm and the height is less than 3 or 4 meters. However, it has been over 100 years old. A small grove of trees, called by the local people as a chicken. Most mangrove forests grow on thick estuaries or beaches in the bay area. The submerged branches and crisscross trees criss-cross, which promotes the sedimentation caused by rivers and tide, so the area of tidal flats has been expanded and continuously developed A new piece of land emerged, which was called the pioneer of land making. Because mangroves are coast guards and pioneers of land-making, the Hainan Provinc ial People s Congress specifically formulated regulations, delineated protected areas, and gave special protection.
In addition, mangroves are also known as natural farms. Mangrove flowers, fruits, leaves, branches and other drops are more than 80% soluble, and the soluble time is short. After rot, breed a large number of plankton, and become fish, shrimp, crab, shellfish and other food. Below the mangrove forest, due to the low wind and waves, and enough food, it has become a paradise for fish, shrimp, crabs and shellfish. The trunk is an appendage of shellfish, and the root becomes a place for crabs and loach to burrow. All mangrove forests are rich in aquatic resources. When you go to Dongzhai Port, you can definitely taste delicious seafood, where the blood snail (loach) is the crown of the island. Mangroves are treasures with high economic value. They can be used as tanning materials and dyes. They can be used for pharmaceuticals and sugar production. Leaves are good feed and wood is good wood.
Established in 1980, the Dongzhaigang Mangrove Reserve is a national nature reserve. It is located in the northeast of Qiongshan City, Hainan Island, at the junction of Qiongshan and Wenchang. A stretch of forest along the beach stretches the coastline for a total length of 54 kilometers. Among them, the mangrove area is 263 acres, which is the largest mangrove gathering area in Hainan. There are 12 species of mangroves and 19 species. In addition, 8 species are artificially introduced. Because Dongzhai Port is located in the tropical northern margin, mangroves are generally small, with an average tree height of only 2 to 6 meters, but high density and boundlessness.
It is 32 kilometers from Haikou and only 10 kilometers from Meilan Airport, and the road traffic conditions are very good. The area is wide, the momentum is spectacular, the air is fresh, the water is good, and the climate is refreshing and pleasant . The coastline is tortuous, the forest coverage is high, and it is natural and interesting. It is a tourist destination. Standing on the coast and looking far away, I saw a vast lush green forest swaying in the sea water. At low tide , the trunks of the entire forest are slender and graceful, like a green wall that never withers, standing tall in the sea. When the tide rises, the mangroves are bathed in warm sea water, and only the verdant canopy is floating in the breeze , like an oasis floating on the sea. Tourists can take a cruise and walk along a ditch about 50 meters wide and watch the mangrove forests. It is very wonderful.
During the Revolutionary War, the mangrove forest in Dongzhai Port was a green screen to cover the revolutionaries. At that time, the Qiongbei Prefectural Party Committee and Qiongshan County Party Committee of the Communist Party of China were located in this area, and they used the cover of dense and deep mangroves to deal with the enemy.
While watching the marine forest in Dongzhai Port, you can also hang in the underwater village in the protected area. According to the Records of Qiongzhou Manuscripts and some local genealogical records of Yanfeng Town and Yanhai Town, Qiongshan City, Dongzhai Port was originally only a shallow ditch about three meters wide, and people could pass by water. A magnitude 7.5 Qiongzhou earthquake occurred on May 28 (July 13, 105) in the Wanli 33 years of the Ming Dynasty. The epicenter was now at Dongzhai Port, with an intensity of 10 degrees. Suddenly, the land subsided into the sea, and 72 villages sank to form the Dongzhai Port, which is today a sea of oceans. Now encountering calm waters and clear seas, you can still see the wells, usui , graves, arches, and stone bridges in the past. This phenomenon of land subsidence into the sea during an earthquake is unique in China and rare in the world.
Dongzhaigang Mangrove Reserve is located in Haikou. The annual average temperature in Haikou is around 20 ° C. November to April of each year is the prime time for tourism in Dongzhaigang Mangrove Reserve, since May to October each year Haikou s rainy season, especially September, is the peak rainfall period; not only that, it is also a typhoon season from June to September. During this period, Haikou is often hit by strong typhoons of magnitude 8 or above, and there is one day every 10 days. Typhoon . Traffic can be problematic during strong typhoons. Flight cancellations and waterway shutdowns are troublesome.