History of paragliding

Paraglider (English name para-Glider) refers to a flexible parachute wing, which forms a wing surface under the action of ram air, and generates lift to maintain flight when gliding forward.

About 1978, a French mountaineer, Baiden, living in Samuni, the foothills of the Alps, took off from the mountainside with a high-altitude square umbrella and successfully flew down the mountain. Regardless, the parachute was originally a sudden whimsy that originated from climbers in the Alps. A new activity jumped out of its shape, and Roger Fillon from Samuni took off from Mont Blanc in 1984 The parachute became famous overnight and quickly gained popularity around the world.

When the paraglider was first produced, most of the gliding ratios were between 3 to 1 to 6 to 1, which means that every 1 meter drop in altitude can fly horizontally 3 to 6 meters. The current glide ratio of paragliders is mostly between 5: 1 to 9: 1. The gliding ratio of some competitive high-performance paragliders is close to 10. Pay attention to the following aspects when selecting:

It is an important principle to match the size (area) of the umbrella with the weight. Only when using a paraglider with a suitable area can its flight performance be better achieved to ensure flight safety. B If the area of ​​the umbrella is too large, it will make it difficult to inflate the umbrella and slow down the flight speed, especially the impact on the wind. Sensitive. When flying under the dL shortage and unstable meteorological conditions (such as currents, phoenixes, etc.), safety-prone situations such as flapping and collapse of umbrellas are prone to occur. It is especially dangerous for beginners or pilots who have insufficient flight experience and are not skilled enough. If the area of ​​the umbrella is too small, it will cause difficulty in taking off and increase flight speed. Because both the horizontal and vertical descent speeds are large when landing and grounding, if the manipulating action is not timely, accurate, or handled incorrectly, landing damage is extremely likely. When designing a paraglider, wing load is an important technical indicator. Paragliders with different performances have different wing loads. It is defined as the weight supported by the unit area of ​​the umbrella, expressed in kilograms per square meter. Generally, the wing load of the primary parachute is 2-3 kilograms per square meter; while the wing load of the medium and advanced paragliders is 2.5-4 kilograms per square meter, some are even higher, in order to increase the gliding flight speed..

Umbrella clothing only gives suitable pilot weight and flight weight in the technical performance table of the paraglider. The weight data has a range. The difference between the upper and lower limits is 15-20 kg. Taking the middle value is good . When flying at high wind speeds, you can use a water bag counterweight to adjust the flying weight to the upper limit to enhance the wind resistance and increase the flying speed, to prevent the umbrella clothing from folding and collapsing due to the wing load being too small. And other phenomena, and can improve handling performance. For pilots of different weights choose the right size of paraglider.

There are 3 to 5 sizes of umbrellas, namely extra small (XS); small (S); medium (M); large (L) and extra large (XL). Most paragliders come in three sizes: S, M, and L .

2. According to Laneng Shuihu purchase gliding, according to different purposes and pilots skill level, paragliding is usually divided into three levels: junior, middle and high. And some manufacturers are more divided into training (SCHOOLh Intermediate (INTERMEIATEh Sports and Leisure ( SPORTS); Characteristics (PERFORMANCE) and COMPETITION) (Competition) 5 levels. Among them, the training umbrella is for beginners, door training for beginners; intermediate and sports Recreational umbrellas are used by junior pilots to improve their flight technology and leisure entertainment for intermediate and above pilots; while features and competition umbrellas are mainly used by intermediate and above pilots to further improve their flight technology and intermediate and advanced pilots to conduct competitions and long-distance cross-country flights.

An important parameter to distinguish the performance of a paraglider is its glide ratio. Early paragliders had lower performance and were less gliding. In order to improve the performance of the paraglider, make the paraglider fly farther and stay longer, the designers have made long -term efforts to improve the high lift-drag specific aerodynamic performance of the paraglider, and have overcome many technical problems, such as Under the premise of ensuring safety, adopt high-resistance ratio airfoil: improve the shape and structure of the umbrella wing; increase the umbrella aspect ratio; increase the number of air chambers; reduce and reduce the height of the air intake; use thin umbrella ropes and umbrella ropes Fork technology, etc. It should be pointed out that the improvement of paraglider performance, especially for high -performance paragliders, is at the expense of certain performances. For example, the inflated performance of the umbrella clothing is degraded: resis tance to gusts and turbulence is reduced, and umbrellas are prone to occur. Closing wings and collapse: It is more sensitive to the manipulation response. When the manipulation amount is too large, it is too fierce or mistaken, and it is likely to cause severe swing and even enter the spiral. Generally speaking, the primary parachute has thicker wings and large air inlets. Although the paraglider can be divided into three levels: primary, middle, and high according to performance, paragliders of the same level will have different performances, as if they were primary, Higher performance may approach or step into the intermediate level; while some higher performance intermediate umbrellas may also reach the advanced umbrella level. Therefore, when buying umbrellas, you must choose according to the recommendations of the manufacturer and the coaches advice. Don t consider one-sided pursuit of high performance without considering your own technical level. Now that the performance of the paraglider is improved, even the primary paraglider can also use the updraft to fly, so for the beginners, the pilots who are not too technically advanced and have little experience, it is important to master the gliding flight theory, meteorological knowledge and good Solid flight technology foundation and very important emergency handling methods. If you buy a paraglider that suits your skill level, as long as you study hard under relatively stable weather conditions, fully master its technical performance, and accumulate rich experience, even if the performance of the parachute is not very high, it can also fly better. Results, enjoy flying fun happily. In particular, do not risk flying too high-performance paragliders until you have reached the level of technology you deserve.

In order to review the flight safety of paragliders, internationally, all types of paragliders are required to undergo airworthiness certification test certification. The recognized evaluation standards are ACPUL in France, SHV in Switzerland and DHV in Germany, in addition to USHC and Japan in the United States. Msc and so on. The test identification content is aimed at the safety-endangering states such as flaps, stalls, and spiral collapses that are easy to occur during paraglider flight. It is controlled by the test pilot to make it happen, and then it can be easily and quickly restored to normal by itself, or whether Test pilots need to intervene in order to resume normal flight test.

CPUACPUL focuses on how long it takes for the umbrella to recover from the deformed state; DHV looks at the severity of the deformation of the umbrella and the ease of automatic recovery. The paraglider that passed the ACPUL qualification test is divided into four wingspans and has relatively high safety. The intermediate and advanced umbrellas have thin wings, small air intakes, large wingspans, high speeds, relatively low safety, and high requirements for control technology. It is not difficult to see the difference between the following performance comparison with this stand umbrella (Japanese level: Standard level is suitable for beginner and intermediate pilots; Characteristic level is suitable for higher level intermediate and advanced pilots: Competition level Used for competitions or long-distance cross-country flight; Double Class is used for double flight. After DHV identification test, it is designated as I for general junior and intermediate pilots: Class 2 is su itable for higher technical level Suitable for intermediate and advanced pilots with higher technical level: 3 class is a racing umbrella.

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