The Spring Festival, as one of the most important traditional festivals of the Chinese, has been popular since ancient times. Both the country and the people regard the Spring Festival as the most important festival and the best wishes for the New Year. During the Han and Wei dynasties, Chinese civilization entered a new period of great development. The customs of the Spring Festival also reflected the situation of the society at the time, and also laid the foundation for the customs of the Spring Festival today.
1: The social situation in the Han and Wei periods
After thousands of years of development, the Chinese civilization became the same after Qin unified the six nations, reaching a new height of historical development, laying the foundation for the Chinese civilization for thousands of years after that. Unfortunately, Qin II died. The Han Dynasty Emperor Qin Dynasty, the rule of Wen Jing and the heroic Emperor Han Wudi, the development of the original text in Chinese has reached a new level. In the period between the Three Kingdoms and the Northern and Southern Dynasties, although there were five wild messes, the civilization passed on, and after all, it could continue to be passed on. Under this social situation, the Spring Festival of the Han and Wei dynasties not only retained the traditions of the pre-Qin period, but also the new customs brought about by social development. The sprouting of many customs in the pre-Qin period was finally established during this period and has been inherited and developed to this day. The Spring Festiv al was finally established as a formal festival.
2: Spring Festival customs in the Han and Wei dynasties
From the beginning of the Qin Dynasty to the Han and Wei dynasties, the previously chaotic calendar and solar terms were unified with the establishment of a unified country. In the process of change, some old etiquette customs were eliminated, and of course a new batch of seasonal festivals was formed. At the age of the year, the festival system was gradually established and stabilized in a stable society. The Spring Festival and its customs were also accepted and passed down by the state and the people as an important festival.
The Spring Festival has many names during the Han and Wei periods, such as Zhengdan, Zhengri, Three Dynasties, and so on. China is an agricultural society. People pay attention to seasonal solar terms to facilitate agricultural production. As early as in the pre -Qin period, people began to attach importance to the middle of the year. The promulgation of the Taichu Order of the Emperor Hanwu Period finally established the date of the Spring Festival. Important festivals continue to this day.
New Year s Eve is the last day of the year, and New Year s Eve is an alternate time between the old and new years. Any event held on that day means resigning from the old and welcoming the new. In the Han and Wei dynasties, the puppet show was the most important event on New Year s Eve and even during the Spring Festival. On this day, both the court and the folk will hold a large-scale puppet show. The puppet show generally selects teenage teenagers to wear specific clothes. In addition, there are people called Fang Xiangshi and Shi The two beasts dance together.
In the Northern Wei Dynasty, in addition to celebrating the New Year in the traditional sense, the puppet show also added a grand ceremony to show off the power of the country. During the Western Jin Dynasty, the five hushes, Xianbei, and other Hu peoples went south and collided and merged with the Chinese text. The religious meaning of eliminating evil and ghosts has begun to fade, folk customs and entertainment have begun to increase, and it has become a very entertaining entertainment during the Spring Festival.
In addition to the puppet show, the Zhengdan Dynasty was a very important activity in the Han and Wei dynasties. On the first day of the first month, the emperor will meet with ministers in the Deyang Hall. The ministers would pay the emperor a new year s greeting. From the Han Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, the Zhengdan Dynasty has always been an important ceremony in the court to celebrate the New Year, and the etiquette has become more and more complicated and strict. In the Selection of Official Ceremony of the Han Officials , the order and steps of the ceremony are explained. The whole ceremony is divided into three parts. One is that the ministers meet with the emperor and congratulate the congratulatory gift, and the last is the emperor. The banquet was performed in dance and opera in order to give wine to the palace, and the final step was the ceremony, and the ministers stepped out in order.
The North Korean congress is the largest event held by the royal family during the Spring Festival. It has many requirements and strict rules. The courtiers are not allowed to participate in the North Korean congress. Even in special circumstances, the North Korean congress will require officials to celebrate at home.
There is a court in the court, and there are also spontaneously formed customs among the folks. Among them, the sacrifice of the gate sacrifice is an important activity. As early as the pre-Qin period, the custom of the sacrifice of the sacrifice to gates was born and finally determined in the Han Dynasty. Since the Han Dynasty, the door gods have specific names, which are called Shen Tu and Yu Lei, respectively. People inherited the traditions of the pre-Qin period and believed that the two could suppress demons, so they became the earliest door gods in China.
Whenever New Year s Eve is coming, people will place peach charms carved with the image of gods and depressions on the door, and then hang a reed rope for the two gods to bind ghosts and feed tigers. It became the universal belief of the Han and Wei dynasties.
The practice of setting off firecrackers began in the Han Dynasty. The first thing people do when they wake up in the early morning of the first month is to set off firecrackers, the purpose of which is to scare a kind of evil spirit called mandrill . Afraid of the sound of firecrackers, people use firecrackers to achieve the purpose of eliminating evil spirits, and firecrackers have been passed down to this day because of their role in exorcising ghosts and bringing a festive atmosphere. However, the firecrackers of the Han and Wei dynasties were not today s gunpowder firecrackers, but the bamboo sticks were roasted in the fire to make crackling sounds. This was a veritable firecracker .
In folk, Spring Festival banquets and drinking are inevitable. In ancient times, it was customary for people to drink and celebrate the New Year when the New Year came. This habit was further developed and established during the Han and Wei dynasties and became an indispensable celebration of the Spring Festival.