History of vehicles _ transportation of ancient people

In the Neolithic era, people s wisdom increased greatly. They learned from the rolling of wooden sticks: round objects move much faster on a plane than other shapes. Many people have begun to think about the way of arranging logs under heavy objects to move things. Others have domesticated some docile beasts into domestic animals for use by human servants to carry goods.

The first car used round wooden boards as wheels, and it was called 辁 at that time. In the Xia Dynasty, there was a man named Xun Zheng who once held the position of Che Zheng. This person made significant improvements to the vehicle and has since used hollow spoke wheels.

By the Shang Dynasty, vehicles had become very common. Vehicle manufacturing technology has also greatly improved, and beautiful two-wheelers have already appeared at that time. The cars of the Shang Dynasty were basically single yoke and two yokes, as shown by the glyph car in the Oracle inscriptions. In the Shang Dynasty, there were three horse-drawn cars called 骖; in the Western Zhou Dynasty, Zhou people added another horse called 驷.

During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the vehicle manufacturing industry developed rapidly. In particular, the cymbals began to change from single cymbals to double cymbals, which made the car stronger and the carrying capacity increased. Mozi, who was walking around the world at that time, said in his book that big cars made in various countries in the Spring and Autumn Period can be loaded with 50 Shi Guzi and run freely. Even on long-distance transportation, the axle will not be damaged. It can be seen that at that time, traffic was very frequent. On the street, except for people are cars, which presents an unprecedented prosperity. At that time, the number of chariots of the vassal countries also became a sign of the strength of a country. The chariot was called a one-pass, so there were so-called the country of thousand times and the country of ten thousand times.

Alas, the cars made at that time were not the same size in each country. When Qin Shihuang unified the six nations, he implemented the vehicle on the same track, which put forward higher requirements on the technology and process of vehicle manufacturing. In the terracotta warrior pit unearthed today, there is a passenger car with a total body length of 3.28 meters, a height of 1.04 meters, single wheels and two wheels, and four copper horses driving in front. The compartment is divided into two front and rear compartments. The front compartment is the cab. There is an official horse figurine with a sabre at the waist and a front view. The rear compartment is a passenger seat with an oval cover on the compartment. Those who came to visit were amazed by the superb craftsmanship of the carriage made more than 2,000 years ago.

During the Han Dynasty, there had been great developments and changes in vehicles. Single-crank cars have gradually decreased. Double-crank cars have developed greatly. The types of vehicles have increased. They are mainly used for loading and unloading. It has rarely been seen on the battlefield. Figure. According to the Continued Han Book · Yufuzhi, the highest-level carriage in the Han Dynasty was the Golden Car that the emperor was riding on, with Bird Standing Liheng and Feather Covering Chinese Fleas on it. Senior officials take the Xuan car , which is a car with obstacles on both sides. Officials usually take a troller (light horse-drawn cart driven by a horse. In the early years of the Han Dynasty, because there were few horses, many officials also took carts pulled by cows). Aristocratic women ride in a car, the carriage is similar to a small house.

With the advancement of society, in the Three Kingdoms period, vehicles with delicate mechanical devices—Keri drum car and guide car—the former was used to record the mileage and the latter was used to indicate the direction of travel.

During the Wei and Jin dynasties, wars were frequent and unicycles began to appear on the stage. This is an economical and practical means of transportation, which is very suitable for running away when the enemy comes, this kind of car can still be seen in the countryside today.

During the Southern and Northern Dynasties, the rapid economic development of the South led to the emergence of large vehicles driven by 12 cattle. Most of these cars are rich people. Grinding cars also appeared. The grinder is equipped with a stone grinder. In the last year of the Tang Dynasty, it was most likely because of the war and the Tang people were very rich. When running, unicycles could no longer transport so many products, so there were tricycles. Unfortunately, with the advent of the fifth generation, this car disappeared inexplicably. In the Song Dynasty, the ethos of bureaucrats in the sedan gradually flourished. At this time, no attention was paid to the production and improvement of high-level vehicles, and the focus of car-making technology gradually shifted from passenger cars to freight cars.

In the middle of the Ming Dynasty, many new vehicles and special-shaped vehicles appeared one after another. The most worth mentioning here is the sail car, that is, adding a sail to the car and using wind to help the car travel. In the Qing Dynasty, two weird cars appeared again, one called an iron armored car and the other called a sedan. The armored car has four wheels, the diameter of which is about one foot, and the carriage is covered with iron leaves to ensure safety . The sedan is the product of the combination of a carriage and a sedan.

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