The reason why the literary works of the Ming and Qing Dynasties were highly respected, in addition to the three-point descriptions of the world, there was also a detailed description of the folk customs at that time, so that today s people can get a preliminary social life To understanding. So, how did the aristocracy and the house of the merchants celebrate the New Year in the Ming and Qing Dynasties? Today, Wen Shijun will take everyone to experience it and see how it is different from today.
I. Buying New Year s products and preparing to worship the ancestors
After entering the lunar month, the taste of the year is getting stronger and stronger. The old people and children just waited for the New Year with one heart and no need to worry about anything, which was a bad job for the male and female masters . Not only do they have to handle all kinds of New Year s products, they are also busy buying new clothes for their families. In Rongguo Mansion, such a burden naturally falls on Mrs. Wang and Sister Feng. It is the first day of the lunar month, and it is close to the days. Mrs. Wang and Sister Feng are in charge of the annual affairs.
As now, people often lament that the price of various items will increase as the year approaches, and the same problem occurred during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. There are a variety of items in the street market, and they are very complete. The street vendors screams are everywhere. It is a unique scenery of the year, and it is called Layue City . This situation is similar to that recorded by the Ming dynasty Pan Rongzheng in The Emperor Jing Ji Sheng : The lunar month , the prices are expensive, the years are rich, the labor is rushed, so there is the saying Large moon is rich in water and soil.
Such a grand festival is naturally indispensable for ancestor worship. In the aristocratic house, the ancestor worship was performed in the solemn and solemn ancestral temple, and the procedures were complicated and complicated. First, preparations must be made to clean the ancestral halls in advance , and prepare the corresponding sacrifice supplies and portraits of gods.
The official ancestor worship was held on the 30th of the lunar month, and the place was in Ningguo. On this day, Mother Jia and others who had sealers from the palace ended their tribute to the ancestors in the ancestral hall. The scene was very magnificent: everyone kneeled down together, and put five halls, three hug buildings, eaves inside and outside the porch, and step up In the next two dandelions, flowers are in full bloom, and there is no open space. The crow and bird were obscured, listening only to the jingle of the bell, Jin Lingyupei swayed slightly, and rang the kneeling boots.
The ancestor worship of the Qing people was very solemn, and there were detailed regulations on order and personnel. This kind of grand and complicated ancestor worship custom rarely exists in modern times.
In the Qing Dynasty, the emperor also had a special kind of favor to the relatives and relatives of the emperor, which was the silver reward for the Spring Festival. The quantity is not too much, and it is packed in a small yellow cloth pocket. This is more of a glory. In the words of the characters in A Dream of Red Mansions, it is that even if 10,000 silver is used for ancestors, it is not as decent as this. With Enxifu.
Two, please door god, spring couplets
It s the 29th day of the second lunar month, and it s all in various styles. All the princes have changed door gods, couplets, and listings. They have renewed their peach charms.
3. Eating New Year s Eve
On the evening of the thirtieth year of the New Year, everyone in Jiafu had to divide the male and female salutes to Jia s mother, and included the young girls. Of course, they can also get some benefits from gimmick salute, such as betting money, purses, gold and silver dumplings, etc. These New Year s gifts are prepared in advance, with exquisite styles, such as plum blossoms, begonias, pen pens, Ruyi, Babao Lianchun and other different styles, which are more sophisticated than today s red envelopes.
After eating New Year s Eve, we will keep the New Year. This evening, there were many flowers in Jiafu, and the people s voices were full of enthusiasm. The bright corner lights in the Grand View Garden were bright, the lights were everywhere, and the laughter continued throughout the night. Of course, fireworks are also indispensable.
After the thirtieth year of the New Year, the first day of the first month, it is the day of the New Year.
In Beijing of the Ming Dynasty, the custom of officialdom in Chinese New Year is relatively special. On the first day of the first month of the first month, the host went out to celebrate the festival, and put a white paper book and pen note on the table at home. The visitor only needed to write the name on the book, and even if it was New Year, there was no welcome gift at all. This custom is similar to the practice of Ximen Qing, except that the family child receives the placards at the door, visits the book, and promises to exchange with the doctor-in-chief.
This kind of he festival which is not met can not be compared with visiting the New Year in person and sending it to the nature, which has caused people s irony. The Ming Dynasty Lu Rong s Garden Miscellaneous wrote for this:
After the first day of the capital, the princes went up to the court, down to the tartars, and those who crossed the road for several days were called New Year. However, the Shiren people worshiped their relatives and friends, and were more solid ; the exchanges between officials and officials were more general.
Solid and non-exclusive vividly portray two different New Year s mentalities, which are really interesting.
By the Qing Dynasty, the custom of worshiping the New Year was roughly the same. Close friends and relatives have to visit the door in person. If the distant person is just stabbing, it is similar to today s mobile phone. In Dream of Red Mansions, Mother Jia felt that there were too many relatives and friends who came to the festival, so she never saw them, either talking to Aunt Xue, Li Ye, and others, or playing Go and playing cards with Baoyu , Daiyu, Baodi and others Have fun.
It is said that at the beginning of the new year, no matter whether it is a rich or a poor family, white bread dumplings are called boiled ravioli, which is the case throughout the country. Another interesting way to eat is that the wealthy and wealthy family house hides small gold, silver, gems, etc. If someone eats it, it means that the person has a lot of luck and a good prize.
In fact, in Shandong, many people pack a few cents or fifty cents of coins when they make dumplings on New Year s Eve, and when they eat dumplings on the first day of the first month, whoever eats dumplings with coins, there are Blessing. If he is a student, it means his academic progress in the new year, especially in the new year when major events such as high school entrance examination and college entrance examination are encountered, which means that he can win the title of the gold list (of course, this is all a good wish); The master, that is, they work smoothly for a year and can make money. If they are elderly, they will be healthy in the new year.
V. Eating Alcohol
During the Chinese New Year, friends and relatives usually have to treat each other for dinner, which is called New Year s wine to celebrate the New Year. For Ning and Rong Erfu, the days of eating New Year s wine can not be repeated, it is best to separate them, otherwise it will be easy to be said to be fearing trouble. In Rongguofu, Mrs. Wang and Sister Feng were in charge of the invitation to eat New Year s wine. The two were every day busy asking someone to eat New Year s wine , and they had been busy for seven or eight days.
Now, starting from the second day of the first month, people have to carry their relatives in large bags, in fact, they are eating New Year s wine. Especially the married daughter will return to her maiden house on this day, visit her parents, her maiden family attaches great importance to it, get up early to prepare.
However, because of the fast pace of work of modern people and the improvement of living standards, the pace of walking relatives during the Spring Festival has also accelerated a lot. Many people just sit and walk away, go to another house, and even take one day. Relatives are gone, and compared with the lively eating of old wine in ancient times, the taste may be slightly inferior.