Unforgettable History: Ten Women’s Contributions to China

01, Mrs. De Cowan

Lia Julia A. Brown (1837-1898), who lost her parents when she was young, lived in her uncle s house, started earning a living at the age of 18, and married Decowen at the age of 25. Soon after they got married, they followed Dicowen s application and prepared overseas missions. In 1864, they came to Dengzhou, Shandong, to establish the Mongolian School. Decowen preached, and the Mengyang School was under the care of Mrs. Decowen. She not only teaches children s common sense of religion, geography, history, Western music, but also takes care of children s daily life, buttons, stacks of quilts, cleanliness, eliminate lice, cultivates students to be honest, care for the poor, and is deeply influenced by students Love.

The Book of Sacred Poetry-Enlightenment of Music by Lady Decowen is not only a detailed music theory sight-singing textbook, but also a hymn incorporating the style of Shandong folk songs. According to the available data, she is probably the earliest in modern times . The person who brought western music education to China can be said to have pioneered the modern music education in China. Mrs Decovin was never born and gave all her energy and love to the children she taught. In modern times, Shandong has many disasters and difficulties. The Nian Army went north twice, the Japanese Army repeatedly bombarded Dengzhou in the Sino-Japanese War, and several major disasters caused huge disasters and panic to the people of Shandong and Dengzhou. During every natural disaster, Mrs. Decovin, regardless of her personal safety, stays up all day, taking care of the students day and night, and helping the poor.

The couple Di Cowen started the Mongolian School from the time of six poor and homeless teenagers. After decades of hardships, in the small town on the seashore, they finally expanded into the first modern university in modern China—Dengzhou Wenhui Hall.

On the 60th birthday of Mrs. De Cowen, her new and old students carefully sewed a cloak decorated with silk fabrics, embroidered everyone s name, and asked people to make a special gilt plaque., Expressing our sincere gratitude to the exotic female teacher who has worked hard to cultivate them. At the end of a disaster relief trip to the northwest of Shandong, the local villagers sent her a “Manmin Umbrella” embroidered with the names of 220 villages she rescued, and managed to get an official sedan , carrying her by the front and back. The main street in front of Yamen has been sent to the station Liuliduo.

Madame Cowan

02, Mrs. Mayes

Annette E. Thompson (1853-1929), a New Yorker from the United States, has taught for several years at the Rochester School of Enlightenment. In 1884, Annette resolutely came to Dengzhou, Shandong. In the same year, she married Mei Lishi and her Chinese name was Mei Naide. In 1887, the couple started to recruit deaf students in Dengzhou with the US $ 50 donated by the silent workers organization of the Rochester Deaf School in the United States. In the second year, the school was named Dengzhou Kailuan School This is the first deaf-mute school in China. Qiluo Academy uses the Rogerste Deaf and Dumb School materials and the self-produced Analysis of Qiluo as teaching materials, and uses oral, finger and sign language to teach . At that time, Chinese people did not understand the education of deaf children. At that time, there was no such thing as deaf and dumb entering the school. At the beginning, although there were no tuition fees and food and accommodation, the Chinese always had doubts about foreigners running deaf and dumb schools. So at the beginning of the school, only two students were recruited: Li Sanyuan and Liu Tangkai. Liu Tangkai made rapid progress. He learned to write 700 characters and knew more than 1,330 Chinese characters. He can tell the difference between the pronunciation of dialects in syllables.

In 1892, there were already 11 students in Kailuan Academy. In May of the same year, the couple returned to the United States on vacation. During the vacation, the couple traveled throughout the United States, calling on more Americans to pay attention to Qiluo Academy. After returning to China, they received extensive foreign financial assistance. In 1895, Mayes died of heart failure, the Presbyterian Church of the United States stopped providing funding, and the school was temporarily suspended in 1896. In order to continue the education of the deaf in China, Mrs. Mayes went around regardless of the loss of her husband, and contacted for help from many parties. She received donations from American and British friends.

Considering the convenience of enrolling students and future development, in 1898, Mrs. Merles moved the school to Yantai. First, I rented two houses, and because of the ugliness, resumed Qilian School. In September 1899, due to the approach of the lease , Mrs. Merles used the life insurance and part of the usury loan obtained after her husband s death to buy a piece of land by the sea to build the school. At the end of November 1899, the school moved to the new school.

In 1902, Mrs. Mayes went to the United States and the Nordic countries to collect donations many times, and received huge donations from church members, especially the Presbyterian Church and deaf-mute schools in the United States, almost all of them. With generous pledges, by 1906, the deaf-mute school paid off its loan and had a surplus fund. The number of male and female students reached more than 60, and the school was renamed the Mei Lishi Kai Lu Memorial School, also known as Yantai Qi Lu School in China. Due to work exhaustion, Mrs. Melissa invited her niece Carter, who works in the US Department of Health, to help her. Carter came to Yantai, devoted herself to the education of the deaf, and took the Chinese name Ge Aide. From this time until his retirement and return to the United States in 1939, Ge Aide has been wholeheartedly engaged in deaf education in Yantai and has never been married.

In order to expand the influence and promote the development of deaf-mute education in various parts of the country, Mrs. Mayes has toured the country with students who can communicate dynamically, and has conducted two teacher training classes. After graduation, she returned to Beijing, Shanghai, Nantong, and Shenyang. In addition, Tianjin, Tianjin and other places have established deaf-mute schools, and even assisted deaf-mute education in Northeast Asia and Japan. By 1914, Mrs. Mei and others led students to North Korea to convene a deaf-mute conference in the Far East. Their innovative teaching method immediately taught 3 Korean deaf-mute children to talk dynamically with each other based on their lip shape. It was known as Yantai Teaching Method It was promoted to East Asian countries after the meeting.

Mrs. Merez originally planned to die in China. However, on March 24, 1927, the Sixth Army of the National Army conquered the British and American consulates in Nanjing, plundered foreign missionary property, and six missionaries were killed, including Jinling University. The vice-principal Wen Huaien called it Nanjing Incident. This incident caused 5,000 Protestant missionaries to flee from China, the missionary work was basically halted, churches closed in many places, and the loss of believers was unprecedented. At this time, Mrs. Merez was visiting relatives in Nanjing, and the gray-haired woman saw the change and immediately returned to the United States. Two years later, he died in Chicago at the age of 76.

Merris

03, Mrs. Debenkang

Ati Matila S. Calder (1875-1958), born in Connecticut, USA, married Deben Kang in September 1902. In October, he was sent by Yali to send a mission to China.

He served in the Yale-China Missionary Group in China and became the earliest member of the group. In 1903, Debencon suffered from tuberculosis and had to return to the United States for medical treatment. He died in California the following year. Mrs. Debenkang worked harder to reduce the loss of her husband. From 1904-1906, she was the secretary of the student s overseas missionary movement. From 1906 to 1911, she was sent to teach at Xiangya Medical College in Changsha, Hunan, China, and assisted in medical services Work, returned to China in 1911.

In 1913, the North American Presbyterian Church, the American-Israeli American Conference, the Supervisory Committee, and the North American Baptist Church jointly formed a school council. Mrs. Kang is the first president of the university. Jinling Women s University officially opened on September 17, 1915, becoming the first women s university in the Yangtze River and one of the earliest women s universities in the country. Since the establishment of the Jinling Women s University in 1913, Mrs. Debenkang has been in charge of school affairs for 15 years. During her 12-year career as a principal, she spent a lot of energy on school creation, fundraising, and planning completion. She also devoted a lot of effort in establishing teaching order and expanding the scale , while also giving classes to students. She has taught Bible courses, astronomy courses, college algebra, triangles, geometry, etc.; she is also responsible for school personnel, finance and paperwork, and even directs th e choir.

9From September 1921 to March 1922, Mrs. Debenkang participated in a survey of the status of Christian higher education in China by the China Christian University Association, which provided an important reference for the education plan formulated by the Ministry of Education of the National Government. In 1922, 77 scholars and celebrities, including Li Shizeng, Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao, Wang Jingwei, Zhu Zhixin, Cai Yuanpei, Dai Jitao, and Wu Zhihui, issued a declaration to energize the country and strongly demanded that Christianity withdraw from China, claiming that there is no religion and no religion. After 6 years of non-basic movement, Mrs. Debenkang withdrew from this war with great interest.

11In November 1928, Mrs. Debenkang resigned as the principal. At the inauguration ceremony of the new principal held by Jinling Women s University, Mrs. Debenkang gave her office seal and a golden key to the chairman of the school board Xu Yizhen. On On behalf of the school council, Xu Yizheng also handed them over to the Chinese principal Wu Yifang. Since then, Mrs. Debenkang has no longer involved in school affairs, but has continued to serve Jinling Women s University diligently as a consultant, part- time teacher, and construction supervisor. She stated in her resignation speech: Our goal is to establish a women s university that is active in the Christian spirit and managed by Christianity. The university should maintain a high level of education, improve social efficiency , promote spiritual development and the highest personality.

In 1943, Mrs. Debencon returned to the United States on the Glipholm ship. He has since lived in Auburndale, Massachusetts, until his death in 1958 at the age of 84.

Mrs. Debenkang and graduates in 1921

04, Mrs. Lide

Aqibald Little (1845-1926), a British missionary sent to China by the British, the wife of a businessman Lide. When she came to China and saw the painful wounds caused by the feet to the girls, she sincerely regretted: Women are not only half of the country s population, but also mothers of the other half. Limb incomplete, foolish, sick mothers give birth And the raised son will be the same as his mother. It is worth noting that since foot-footing spread in China, the Chinese Empire has never given birth to a man who won admiration forever. People cry out loud, where is he? These words are filled with the angry shouting of a woman, which is also the voice of Chinese women for thousands of years, but Chinese women endured that way and did not dare to shout out. It was a great sadness.

In 1878, Mrs. Lide founded the Tianzu Club in Shanghai, and set up branches in Suzhou, Wuxi, Zhenjiang, Nanjing, Yangzhou and other places. At the same time, a large number of pamphlets were printed and distributed, reaching as many as 100,000. The largest and most influential organization will be the Tianzu Association, which was established in Shanghai in 1895. Mrs. Lied is the president, and the famous missionary Mrs. Li Timothy is also a member of the association. The purpose of the Tianzu Association is: Special counsels advise footbinding, write books, and send them to the world, and make them known to everyone. At the meeting, all the friends have the same heart, save the world, teach their love, and promote the Chinese woman to create it.. Start with the release of his feet, except for his life-long suffering, and then pursue his teaching method. The association stipulates that all members of the association should release the feet of women in their homes, and they will no l onger be wrapped in women in other days. Foot, do not marry a foot-binding woman.

In order to abolish the bad habit of wrapping her feet, she put a lot of energy, material resources, or spare no effort. Mrs. Lide knows the importance of authority in China, and she needs to win support from upper officials and the whole society.

She used to go to Zhang Zhidong for persuasion, let him write down the text supporting the Tianzu movement, find someone to copy it on the red paper, and show it to those Chinese officials and men who love to show off at her Tianzu conference. good results. But Zhang Zhidong s support was not enough. Mrs. Lide contacted Li Hongzhang in the Shenmen compound through a relationship with a western female doctor, and visited him in the pouring rain. Li Hongzhang does not explicitly support the Tianzu movement like Zhang Zhidong. He said, You want me to call women from all over the country not to wrap their feet? No, I dont have that much power now. Can women in China wear the same pair of shoes? No. Do you want me to write something for you like Zhang Zhidong? , And then evaded euphemistically: I am not good at writing articles, and now I am old, I cant write anymore. Mrs. Lide had a clever move that allowed him to be on his own. Writing something on the fan was also an approva l of the abolition of the foot wrap, and he agreed on the spot. At each rally since then, Li Hongzhang s inscriptions have been shown, and they are indeed very important.

Chinese women s abolition of foot binding is not just the power of Mrs. Lid. Many other missionaries and enlightened Chinese people have made unremitting efforts for the Tianzu movement. But as the initiator of the Tianzu movement, she spared no effort to publicize the dangers of foot wraps, and undoubtedly made a huge contribution to abolishing the bad habits of foot wraps. At that time, Fuzhou Daotai said to her: You are like the Guanyin Bodhisattva. The Chinese used to have only one Guanyin. Now there are two, and you are the second.

05, Avid

LadGladys Aylward (1902-1970), born in London, England, father is a postman. In the early years, she did not receive much education, worked as a maid, and then decided to go to China to preach. She was rejected by the Mainland, but the Mainland arranged for her to take care of two old missionaries who returned to China from retirement. It was the couple, Sir Jan Hosburn, who had trained them in elegant English and learned a lot about the East. In early 1930 , at a meeting of the Methodist Church, she accidentally heard that an old missionary in Shanxi, China, Jenny Rosen was 73 years old and could not retire because of no replacement. She immediately wrote to Rosen and said: That person is me! On October 18, 1930, at the age of 28, she set off from the United Kingdom alone, exhausted all her savings, and took a boat and train to Russia and Japan. After all the hardships, she finally reached Tianjin.. Later , he made a long trek from Tianjin to Yangcheng, Shanxi, and found the old Met hodist missionary Jenny Lawson.

In Yangcheng, Jenny rented a large house with a compound on the avenue between the towards team outside the city gate. Because this house is considered a ghost house by the locals, the rent is very cheap, only 1 pound a year. They cleaned the courtyard and house into a neat and clean place, and turned it into an inn, which provided room and board for widowers who traveled for long distance transportation. This inn is called Batford Inn and is taken from Jesus Mountain Sermon in the Bible. When the widowers rested and ate, Iveld told them Bible stories. This is how many people believe in Jesus Christ. One day, she bought a sick girl from a woman, spent 9 cents, and gave her the name 9 cents , scientific name Emei. Later, 9 Mao brought back a little homeless boy from the outside. She said that she would rather eat less to save food for the little boy. Avid was so moved that he took the little boy and named him a little. In this way, more orphans were adopted by her. When the mag istrate of Yangcheng County saw the changes of the widowers, he came to visit Aiweide and asked her to help him promote the foot movement that the government was implemented at the time. Aiweide agreed, and later she helped The magistrate quelled a prison riot . Finally the magistrate also converted to Christ.

In 1936, Avid broke her British passport and joined the Chinese nationality. In 1939, the Japanese army attacked this area. As Avid accused the Japanese army of atrocities in China in the Time of the United States, the Japanese issued a notice offering a reward to capture this little woman, Avid.. Ai Weide had to lead about a hundred Chinese orphans across the mountains and trek into the safe Shaanxi region. After the founding of New China, Ai Weide was forced to leave mainland China to open an orphanage in Taiwan until his death in 1970 in Taiwan and was buried in Taipei. With her head facing the Chinese mainland during the burial, she expressed her nostalgia for the land on the mainland. In 1949, her story was written by the BBC s Alan Burgess as The Small Woman . In 1957, Hollywood adapted and adapted her story to the film Liu Fu Inn ..

06, Murady

Lottie Moon (1840-1912), a wealthy family born in the United States, speaks many languages, and is the earliest female master s degree in the southern United States. On September 1, 1873, Muradi sailed from San Francisco in the United States and arrived in Dengzhou Mansion (now Penglai) on October 27. After arriving in Dengzhou, he set up an enlightenment at Dengzhou North Gate Baptist Church. Elementary school, and the Little Crossing Girls Elementary School was set up on Paifang Street South Road to teach boys and girls who did not have the opportunity to read; later she opened Muzhen Middle School and Yuying Girls Middle School to teach children, women and adults respectively. The establishment of Muradi Women s School is the beginning of Dengzhou women s escape from ignorance and enlightenment, thus ending the state of Dengzhou women s backwardness from uneducated, breaking through the shackles of thousands of years, and gaining education for women. Rights have impacted the entre nched patriarchal habits of society.

When Hammurati first came into contact with Chinese society, he strongly felt the humble status of Chinese women. When she saw the foot-binding custom of Chinese women for the first time, she was very shocked and couldn t help but tell her friends in the letter: The shape of their deformed feet and hobbing is a symbol of their backward thinking. Murady made every effort to educate the local women about the harm of wrapping their feet and persuading them to let their feet go. In February 1878, Murady pioneered the anti-foot-binding movement in the girls school that she founded, prohibiting foot-entanglers from enrolling in school, and using foot relaxation as a prerequisite for admission. As a result, her students and women believers in the church became pioneers. This move also made Murady one of the pioneers of the anti-foot-binding movement in modern Chinese history and the promotion of women s liberation.

In addition to missionary education and schooling in Shandong, Moulindi is also actively engaged in helping the hungry. In the spring of 1912, famine came to Pingdu. At this time, she was already 72 years old. Muradi took out all her savings and food to share with the surrounding hungry people. As a result, her own health was seriously damaged, and her weight dropped to only 50 pounds. On December 1st, she fainted on the bed and would send her back to the American ship.

On December 24, 1912, when the ship passed the port of Kobe, Japan, Murady died of chronic malnutrition. She left a saying similar to Dadeson: If I had a thousand lives, I would give them all to Chinese women.

07, Wei Yihua

Mary Elizabeth Wood (1862-1931), Chinese name Wei Weihua, female missionary of the Anglican Church, library educator. In 1899, Wei Yihua came from New York to teach at Wuchang Mandarin College, a boarding school founded by the American Anglican Church in 1871. Wei Yihua, who had worked in the library, soon discovered that the library and materials on the campus of Wenhua were scarce, teachers and students had no reference books for teaching, and there was no library in Wuhan for the general public to read . So she mobilized the faculty to donate books, collected and bought books and magazines by herself, and set up a small book reading room in the school. This small reading room was greatly welcomed by teachers and students, which made Wei Yihua realize that it is necessary to introduce western public library concepts to China and build a large new public library. In order to strengthen her knowledge and funding in this area, she returned to the United States to study at Platt College i n New York and Simmons College in Boston to study library science. After studying, she lobbied at various universities and received strong sponsorship from Columbia and other universities and church-related people.

In 1903, with the professional knowledge and construction funds learned, Wei Yihua returned to Wuchang Mandarin College.

She bought a plot of land near Gongjia Garden called Gongjia Garden and made preparations for the early construction. In 1905, Mandarin College held a grand groundbreaking ceremony for the new library. In May 1909, on the festive day when the Mandarin College was officially renamed as Mandarin University, the main building of the library was completed and the new library was named Mandarin Public Book Forest, which is a popular public library This elegant and poetic name highlights the word public, emphasizing the meaning of public, open and shared. On May 16, 1910, Wenhua Gongshulin held a magnificent opening ceremony, marking the birth of the first truly public library in modern China.

After opening, Gongshulin often held lectures, readings, storytelling, concerts, etc. to attract readers to read. In 1914, a mobile library was also established. Some books were selected to be stored in schools and units at various places for readers to read nearby. It was replaced every few weeks. Three branches were also set up to serve Wuhan University Middle School and The general public, and explain and publicize the concept and significance of public libraries to the public. From 1914 to 1916, Wenhua Gongshulin also organized tour lectures in Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Kaifeng, Taiyuan and other cities to popularize library knowledge to the public. This move has caused widespread concern in the cultural community. Cai Yuanpei therefore called the Wenhua Gongshulin much hope. By 1930, the 10th anniversary of Wenhua University s opening of the library department, it had trained a total of 60 graduates, of whom 33 were serving in domestic libraries and 29 were curators. 30 libra ries serve.

Wei Weihua and Wenhua Library breathed together and shared fate, never married. She dedicated her second half of her life to the cause of Chinese public libraries. At that time, Li Yuanhong, the second president of the Republic of China, called her the queen of the modern library movement in China , and Duan Qirui gave her the plaque advocating culture . On May 1, 1931, Wei Yihua died of illness in Wuchang at the age of 69.

08, Aldsey

Mary Ann Aldersey (1797-1868) was born in a wealthy family in Essex, southeast England. His father Joseph was a local stationery wholesaler and his mother was Elizabeth. When Morrison returned to vacation from 1824 to 1826, Aidi Sui studied Chinese with him and hoped to join the missionary ranks.

In 1844, funded by the Oriental Women s Education Promotion Association , Aldsey came to Ningbo City to open a son-in-law, which is the first girl s school in Chinese history. Aldsey realized that in this country with a long history and cultural tradition, women, especially women in the lower and middle classes of society, were generally deprived of their right to education. And her ideal is to promote women s self-awareness and independent survival ability by promoting women s education . At first, there was no life for school. Some people said that she was the incarnation of the devil and had killed her own child. Now she comes to calculate the children of others. Some people said that her school was fake, and it was true that she abducted the girl to make medicine. So no one wants to send girls to school.

Aldsey was not disappointed, and repeatedly visited the door to mobilize parents to send their children to school, assuring parents that children will not only increase the burden on the family after school, but will also be well taken care of, provide food and accommodation for school girls for free, and even issue clothing and Pocket money, and then students gradually came to class. She started running the school at her own expense and later received funding from the Presbyterian Church and the Oriental Women s Education Association. The son- in-law has grown to 40 students, and her courses include Chinese, arithmetic, embroidery, tailoring, etc. It is the earliest girl s school in Chinese history. A year later, the son-in-law had 15 students and gradually increased to 40 in 1852. These few students are basically from the bottom of society.

Eldersey is never married. On the day she arrived in China, she wrote in her diary: It is my wedding day to arrive today and come among the Chinese. I have been engaged to the Chinese people who have interested me so long. She has been in Ningbo Worked until 1861. Since then, due to physical and age issues, Aidi Sui has announced his retirement, handing over the school to the Anglican Church, and heading to Adelaide, Australia, to live with her brother s family There she co-founded the Mihashi School. On September 30, 1868, she died at the age of 72 in Adelaide, Australia.

09, Daoji

Deborah Matilda Douw 1835-1911. In 1869, Douji came to Beijing for the first time with the American Christian Presbyterian Overseas Mission. She and two other women missionaries founded a boarding school for girls in Beijing.. The Douw Foundation was also established in Shanghai for evangelical work. Daojie came to China for a few years to live, she was shocked by the huge damage to mothers and babies caused by old-fashioned delivery methods in China. Although bacterial knowledge and disinfection delivery knowledge had been popularized in the United States in 1850, it was still unheard of in China at this time. In 1873, Daoji saw a heartbreaking delivery: a pregnant woman had difficulty giving birth, and the child s feet were exposed first. The midwife put a shoe on the child s feet, hoping that the child would come out soon. As a result, the child did not come out, and the mother stopped breathing during a few bursts of heartbreaking crying. Suddenly, Daoji concealed his face and wep t, and returned to his house to cry again.

Martyrdom decided to do something for Chinese mothers and babies while evangelizing in China. In 1877, she returned to the United States to run around to collect donations. The leaves are yellow and green, and green and yellow… In an instant, eight years passed, and she raised $ 80,000. In 1885, she was in a hurry and returned to Beijing by boarding a ship from the east. She used the funds raised to build 12 bungalows at the north section of the Andingmen crossing. This was China s first maternity and infant hospital—a women s hospital. After the establishment of the Women s and Infants Hospital, she actively promoted the new method of delivery and vaccination, which greatly reduced the pain of women s birth and significantly improved the survival rate of babies. She also established Beijing s first nurse school to train medical and nursing staff. Not only that, she also introduced other western medicine, and later developed many church hospitals throughout the country. Daoji bro ught western advanced new delivery methods into ancient China, and sent ancient and ignorant delivery methods to the grave.

In 1900, the Boxer Incident that shocked the world occurred in China. Daoji and some missionaries were besieged by the Boxer in the consulate. They were eventually rescued by a United Nations force and returned to the United States. When he returned to the United States, whenever the Boxer burned down churches, hospitals, and At the school, the foreign missionaries and the Chinese worshippers proclaimed to the public and discarded the body, and she cried until she died in grief in 1911.

10, Weitlin

Minnie Vautrin1886-1941, Chinese name Huaqun, American missionary.

9 In September 191.

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